Wheat civilization refers to all the territories and populations where wheat is (or rather was) the main crop and the main food. It includes a large part of Europe, the Mediterranean basin and the Middle East. It is opposed in this respect to the civilizations of maize (America) and rice (Asia). This concept, coined by the French historian Fernand Braudel, is mainly applied to the history of the world from Antiquity to. By the end of, the first globalization blurs the tracks and makes this description obsolete. Wheat is a plant of civilization that is often linked to the olive and the vine. These three cultures are found elsewhere (since before, China is already massively growing wheat) but they are significant of Western civilization, including the Middle East. The first civilizations of wheat, vines and olive trees are located in the Middle East in Mesoptamia and Egypt in particular.
* Fernand Braudel, material civilization, economy and capitalism, -, Paris, Armand Colin, 1979, volume 1, chapter “The bread of every day”, p.81-152.