Middle Stone Age



The English term “Middle Stone Age”, frequently abbreviated to MSA, refers to the great stage of African Prehistory that succeeds Early Stone Age and precedes Later Stone Age. It corresponds roughly to the Middle European Paleolithic even if it begins with industries attributed to the final Acheulean (about – 200 000 BP years) and if it ends with African equivalents of the Upper Paleolithic European (about – 30 000 years BP). The Blombos and Diepkloof sites in South Africa have yielded important sequences rich in MSA industries, represented in particular by the Stillbay facies in the first, the Stillbay facies and Howiesons Poort in the second.

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Mehrgarh

Mehrgarh was a former settlement site in South Asia and one of the most important archeology sites for the study of early Neolithic settlements in the region. The site is located in Pakistan’s Balochistan in the Kachi Plain near Bolan Pass, west of the Indus Valley and between the present-day cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi. Mehrgarh is sometimes considered the first site where agriculture in South Asia appeared, based on archaeological excavations carried out between 1974 and 1985 by the French archaeologist Jean-François Jarrige and his team. This is also where we find the oldest pottery of South Asia.

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mayaca people

The Mayacas were a Native American people living in central Florida upon the arrival of Europeans. They are part of the Ais language family and the Muskoge language group. According to the travel stories of the conquistador Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda written in 1575, the Mayacas were hunter-gatherers, unlike their Timucuas neighbors, whose Potanos and Saturiwas tribes practiced agriculture. The Mayacas consisted of several villages and groups, the two main ones being the Jororo or Hororo and the Surruques. The Mayacas participated with the neighboring tribes, the tradition of pottery making. Their territory extended from the Saint Johns River to Lake George and the Kissimmee River to the south. The Mayacas, especially those who lived in villages near the coast, came into contact with the French explorers around 1562. The relations of good neighborhoods between the French and the various Native American tribes (Saturiwas and Tacatacurus) allowed the French to establish their forts (Charlesfort and Fort Caroline) in French Florida.

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Maïkop culture

The culture of Maykop is a Bronze Age archeological culture whose area is in Ciscaucasia from the Taman Peninsula to the foothills of the Greater Caucasus and the Black Sea coast (formerly Pont-Euxin) up to present-day Chechnya in the east. It owes its name to the kurgan of Maykop, dated between the middle of the fourth millennium BC. AD and the middle of the third millennium BC. J. – C., which was found in 1897 by the archaeologist Nikolai Vesselovski (1848-1918) near Maykop. This burial mound consisted of a royal burial with many objects of gold and silver. It was influenced by the kuro-arable culture (3500-2000 BC) which borders it to the south and extends to eastern Anatolia. To the north and east is the Yamna culture area, which is contemporary to it and immediately to the north, the Novotitorovka culture (3300-2700). The culture of Maykop appears between 4000 and 3900 BC. She is best known for her burial practices. The burials are lined with stones and surmounted by a kurgan. It is from this first culture that the first kurganes appear. Later, the tumulus of stones support the kurganes. This culture is remarkable for the abundance of finely decorated bronze objects, as well as objects of gold and silver. According to the Kurgan hypothesis of Marija Gimbutas in 1956, which studied the funerary rites of these populations, it comes from intrusions originating from the Pontic steppes towards the Caucasus. It participates in the second wave of the middle of the fourth millennium, which then spread to Northern Europe around the year 3000. These tribes would have linguistic and ethnic links with Proto-Indo-Europeans and would be linked to the lower Mikhailovka group and the Kemi Oba culture (3700-2000) that extended into the present-day Crimean Peninsula. It also has more distant links with the culture of globular amphorae and the culture of corded ceramics and only with regard to economic exchanges. The Kuban River is navigable for a good part of the year. It connects to the Sea of ​​Azov and Yamna culture territory, and to the rivers Don and Donetsk present-day region. Maikop’s culture therefore enjoyed a geographical position conducive to trade. The archaeologists Tamaz Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav Ivanov estimate that in 1984 the Proto-Indo-European tribes of the Maykop culture had stopped in these territories from the South Caucasus and northern Anatolia to find an Urheimat in the steppes, which would be consistent with Colin Renfrew’s Anatolian hypothesis.

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Maglemosean

The Maglemosian is a cultural facies of the early Mesolithic of Northern Europe (about 9000 to 6500 BC). In Scandinavia this culture precedes the Kongemosian.

This facies, defined by George F. L. Sarauw in 1903, takes its name from the archaeological site of Mullerup, which lies in a large marsh (magle mose) in Sjælland (Denmark). Following the first discoveries in 1900, a large number of similar sites were excavated in England, Poland and northern France and Skåne in Sweden. Carbon dating links the Koelbjerg Woman to this culture. Maglemosians lived in forest and wetlands; they used tools and hunting and fishing weapons in wood, stag antler (harpoons, axes and adzes), bone (needles, hooks, points) and flint. The flint microliths used as frames of bone spearheads and arrows are characteristic of this culture (according to the phases, truncation points or curve backs, triangles, trapezes, microburin technique). Larger stone tools are also used (axes, adzes, scrapers, chisels, etc.).

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Culture latiale

The latial culture is an archaeological variant of the Villanovan culture. It was located on the old Lazio. The feudal culture of the Iron Age has succeeded the apennine culture of the Bronze Age and is considered to end after the Villanova culture with the appearance in history of a state called Latium, inhabited by an archaic Latin-speaking people. Culture is therefore probably identified as a socio-political phase of self-awareness of the Latin people. It coincides more or less with the legendary period of the Latin kings of Albe la Longue and the monarchy of Rome. The latial is recognized by its urns-huts whose urns of cremation villanovienne are united, biconical and were buried in a deep well, the urn-hut is a hut of round or square shape with a pointed lid and a door leading to inside a wall. Cremation was not an exclusive rite; she shared her funeral conventions with burial, with decreasing frequency over time; however, the artifact assembly with which it is associated is distinct. Urn-huts are huts in which the population lived mainly, although during this period it developed the use of stones for temples and other public buildings.

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La Tene

The Tene or second Iron Age is a culture of Protohistory that develops in Europe between about 450 BC. BC and undefined undefined undefined Considered the culmination of Celtic civilization, it succeeded Hallstatt (1300 BC to 400 BC) and ended with the Roman conquest and Germanic migrations. Its name comes from the archaeological site of La Tène discovered in 1857 in Marin-Epagnier, on the shores of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland. La Tene gives the adjective “laténien (ne)”.

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Lapita

The Lapita civilization (named after an archeological site in New Caledonia) is an original civilization, especially for its pottery decorations, which seems to have appeared on the Bismarck Islands in north-eastern New Guinea, but is then spread over about extension: several hundred Lapita archaeological sites have been found in an area ranging from New Guinea to Samoa (Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa , Wallis and futuna). It is associated with the Austronesian peoples who, from near Oceania, populated the remote Oceania and are at the origin of the Oceanian language group. Carbon dating shows that the oldest Lapita sites date back to about 3500 years ago, 1500 BC. Traces of dwellings on stilts were discovered at the Talepakemalai site at Mussau Islands (PNG), Nenumbo, Solomon Islands and Bourewa, Fiji. Some skeletons have been discovered, particularly at Téouma in the Vanuatu Archipelago and at Lapita in New Caledonia. The parallel with the Laputa Island, invented by Jonathan Swift for Gulliver’s Travels published in 1721, is only a coincidence since the first Europeans arrived in New Caledonia in 1774. The survivors of the sinking of Perugia’s boats in 1788 landed on the island of Vanikoro, near a lapita site. The French scientists who survived the expedition were perhaps the first discoverers of this culture.

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kurgan

The term kurgan, also spelled kurgan or kurgan – a word of Tatar origin – is the Russian designation of tumuli. These are mounds, mounds, or even artificial hills, covering a grave. But the term refers, by extension, to the civilization that left these vestiges: the civilization of the kurganes.

Kurgan trees are particularly numerous in the northern Black Sea (southern Russia and Ukraine), but they are also found throughout eastern Europe. They were left behind by a population that lived in this region in the Neolithic, between.

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kongemose culture

The Kongemosian or Kongemose culture is a cultural facies of the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in southern Scandinavia (about 6200 years – 5300). This culture is preceded by the Maglemosian and followed by the Ertebølle culture. The Kongemose culture is contemporary with the Nøstvet and Lihult culture, whose bearers were located further north. Its name is taken from a site in western Zealand discovered in 1952. The culture is also known for its archaeological sites including its spiers in Lolland, Langeland and Skåne, discovered for the oldest in 1927. The sites are characterized by flint microliths, with wooden or bone handles. Scrapers, punches, denticulate blades, daggers and axes were also found, as well as bone hooks. These objects are often decorated with geometric patterns The economy is based on the hunting of red deer, roe deer, beaver and wild boar, supplemented by fishing. Category: Prehistory Kongemosian

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Komsa Culture

Komsa culture was a Stone Age hunter-gatherer culture that existed in northern Norway around 10000 BC. The culture is named after Komsa Mountain, in the municipality of Alta, where the first archaeological discoveries were made in 1925. Komsa culture is believed to have followed the Norwegian coastline to the south. the end of the last glaciation and occupied the newly liberated lands. The commonly accepted view today is that the oldest settlements on the northern Norwegian coast came from the coastal regions of western and southwestern Norway and ultimately from the final phase of the Paleolithic culture of Ahrensburg. North West Europe. Archaeological findings indicate that the Komsa culture was almost exclusively sea-oriented, living mainly from the seal hunt. They were also boatbuilders and competent fishermen. On the other hand, stone tools and other objects appear relatively simple in comparison with those of the Fosna culture, established at the same time in southern Norway.

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Koban culture

The Koban culture is an archaeological culture from the Late Bronze Age and early Iron Age in the north and center of the Caucasus. It is preceded by the Colchidian culture in the west and Kharachoi culture further east. The culture of Koban appears around 1100 BC and ends around 400 It is named after the village of North Ossetia where, in 1869, various objects, axes, dagues, decorative objects and others, discovered in a kurgan. Other sites were subsequently discovered in the central Caucasus.

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Kebaran

The Kébarien designates an archaeological culture of the Epipaleolithic located in the Near East generally between 19000 to 12000 before the present. This culture, known in the territories of present-day Lebanon, Israel (including the Negev desert) and Sinai, owes its name to the site of Kébara. It is characterized by the presence of geometrical microliths; other geometrical representations appear in Geometric Kebarian in the form of bone tools. Linked to groups of nomadic hunter-gatherers, it succeeds the Antelian (Aurignacian of the Levant) and precedes the pre-Neolithic culture of the Natufian.

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Culture of Jastorf

The Jastorf culture is an archaeological culture of the Iron Age in the north of present-day Germany that developed between the and the.

The culture of Jastorf extends from west to east, from the Elbe to the Oder; and from southern Denmark to northern Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg from north to south; covering almost all of the current northern half of Germany.

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Culture of Janislawice

The Janislawice culture is the name of the cultural unit from the village of Janislawice near Skierniewice. The cultural development of this designated entity begins around 6600 until 4600. The birth of this culture is not well understood, but it points to an Eastern provenance. Thus, in its western part it succeeds the culture of Komornica and was bordered on the north by the culture of Niemen.

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Civilization of the Indus Valley

The civilization of the Indus Valley (circa 8000 BC – 1900 BC), also known as the ‘Harappan civilization’, is a civilization of Antiquity of which the geographical area extended mainly in the Indus River valley in the Indian sub-continent (around modern Pakistan). Although likely, the influence it may have had on contemporary Hindu culture is unclear. Forgotten by history until its rediscovery in the 1920s, the civilization of the Indus ranks among its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, as one of the first civilizations, these being defined by the appearance of cities, agriculture, writing, etc.If the civilization of the Indus is not the first ancient civilization, Mesopotamia and Egypt having developed cities shortly before, it is however the one that knows the greatest geographic extension. To date, of the 1052 sites that have been discovered, more than 140 are on the shores of the Ghaggar-Hakra seasonal stream. According to some hypotheses, this hydrographic system, once permanent, watered the main agricultural production area of ​​the Indus civilization. Most of the other sites are along the Indus Valley and its tributaries but are also found in the west as far as the Iran border, in the east to Delhi, in the south to Maharashtra and north to the Himalayas. Among these sites, there are many cities like Dholavira, Ganweriwala, Mehrgarh, Harappa, Lothal, Mohenjo-daro and Rakhigarhi. At its peak, its population could have exceeded five million people. Despite all these achievements, this civilization is very poorly known. Its very existence has been forgotten until. Her writing remains indeciphered and we do not know if she has any connection with Brahmi writing, which seems unlikely in light of current knowledge. Among the mysteries that this civilization conceals, at least three questions are fundamental:

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Hongshan culture

The Hongshan Culture (红山 文化) is a Neolithic culture (4700 – 2900 BCE) of northeastern China, extending north from the Yan (燕山) Mountains to Hebei and from other highlands of Daling (大 凌河) and Xiliao (西 遼河) in Liaoning and Inner Mongolia. The Hongshan culture is particularly famous for its jade objects as well as for some quite remarkable funerary and cult sites including temples, altars, cairns and pyramidal constructions. Archaeologists believe that this culture is based on those of Xinglongwa (兴隆 洼) (Inner Mongolia and Liaoning) and Zhaobaogou (赵宝 沟) (Inner Mongolia and Hebei), with whom it has clear similarities the plan of funeral practices. Hongshan would be contemporary with the middle and late phases of Yangshao with whom she would have had exchanges.

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Hanshu Culture

Hanshu Culture (汉书 文化) is a Bronze Age culture from northeastern China in the Songhua and Nen River Plains. It is divided into two phases: the ancient Hanshu (Hanshu I) and the late Hanshu (Hanshu II). It takes its name from the archaeological site of Hanshu which is located on a hill above Lake Yueliangpao in Da’an. This site is inscribed in [[the main protected sites for their cultural and historical value at the national level (Jilin) | list of monuments of the People’s Republic of China]] (5-26) since 2001. The Hanshu II presents square houses about 7 m side and semi-buried with many storage pits. The ceramic is red-brown and the decor is painted before cooking.

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Culture of Hamburg

The culture of Hamburg or Hamburg is a reindeer hunter culture of the plains of northwestern Europe from the late Upper Paleolithic (13,500 years to 11100 BC). It is located chronologically between the end of the last glaciation (called Devensian glaciation in Great Britain, Weichsel glazial in Germany and Northern Europe, Würm glaciation for the Alps) and the beginning of the Meiendorf interstade.

The inventors of Hamburg culture are the archaeologist Gustav Schwantes and his pupil Alfred Rust, who excavated from 1930 the site of Meiendorf, north of Hamburg. In the early 1980s, for the first time, hamburger remains were found in Scandinavia at Jels in South Jutland. In southern Sweden, in Finja (Skåne), traces of Hamburg culture have also been found. Recent research (2005) shows that in the summer the men of Hamburg culture traveled far north following the foreshore along the coast of Norway: the sea level was then lower than the current level. .

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Hallstatt Civilization

In ancient history, the Hallstatt or Iron Age civilization is a culture in west-central Europe that lasts from about -1200 to -500. It succeeds the age of the final bronze and precedes the period of La Tène or Second Age of iron (end of Protohistory). It extends north of the Alps to present-day Czech, Bavaria, and northern Austria. This culture is generally considered by historians as the cradle of Celtic peoples, or at least of populations dominated by Indo-European elites of Celtic languages. It derives its name from an archaeological site in Hallstatt in the Salzkammergut region of Austria. The term Hallstatt gives the adjective hallstattien (ne) and is abbreviated as Ha in the jargon of the specialists.

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Kingdom of Guge

The kingdom of Guge (middle of) located in Tibet in present-day Zanda County, Ngari, sheltered a brilliant civilization and was one of the sources of the Buddhist renaissance in Tibet. He experienced periods of expansion which brought the valleys of Zanskar, Upper Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti under his subjection. Its capitals were Tholing and Tsaparang, located in the Sutlej Valley about 1100 km west of Lhasa, not far from the sacred Kailash Mountain.

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Yuchanyan Cave

Yuchanyan Cave is a prehistoric site of great archaeological significance in Hunan, South China. Carbon 14 dates are evaluated between and before the common era, AEC, and this corresponds to the final Pleistocene with the earliest signs of early Neolithization in China. This is not a Neolithic site, since the site was occupied by a hunter-gatherer population. Due to the history of later cultures this site may appear as the first milestone in progressive neolithization in China. Especially there are fragments of one of the world’s earliest potteries (in the state of knowledge of 2012) while the cave has also been found to contain traces of wild rice grains. This cave is associated, to have similar shards, with those of Zengpiyan and Miaoyan, nearby: the hunter-gatherer population that occupied the premises in all three cases seems to have had comparable living conditions and shared similar knowledge: pottery fragments that are also about as old were found there. On these three sites the polished stone is also present, although later, but it also appears on other sites of the final Pleistocene in China, as Longwangchan (20000-15000) in Shaanxi, always in hunter-gatherers. Other ceramics were found in northern China at one of the Hutouliang sites (circa 13080) in Hebei. They are therefore hunter-gatherers who “invented” ceramics and polished stone, in China as in other parts of the world. This leads to rethinking categories like the “Neolithic” in contemporary research.

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Galta

Galta is an archaeological site in the municipality of Rennesøy, Rogaland County, Norway. Galta is located north of the municipality, on the E39. This site is known to house several dwellings of the Stone Age. The oldest, Galta 3 dates from about -10000 BC. J. – C. and was discovered in 1989-1990. It is the oldest group of houses found near the coast in southern Norway.

The tools found in the living quarters show that the inhabitants belonged to the cultural movement that archaeologists call Ahrensburg culture. This culture extends to the north of Europe, from Poland to Belgium, the Netherlands and England. In Scandinavia, it is mainly present in Denmark, but also in Skåne. The people who came to Galta undertook the journey of lands further south and are now submerged.

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Culture of Friedenhain-Prestovice

The Friedenhain-Prestovice culture was brought to light by German and Czech archaeologists in the early 1980s by comparing the archaeological remains collected on the one hand in Friedenhain near Straubing (Bavaria) and on the other hand in Prestovice (Czechoslovakia). ), on the banks of the Otava, a tributary of the Moldau.

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Culture Fosna-Hensbacka

The cultures of Fosna and Hensbacka are two very similar cultures of the Mesolithic in Scandinavia, often grouped under the name Fosna-Hensbacka culture. This complex also includes the Komsa culture, which despite the difference of tools is considered part of the Fosna culture. The Fosna / Komsa culture was located on the Norwegian coast while the Hensbacka culture was on the Swedish west coast, especially Bohuslän.

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Culture Federmesser

The groups at Federmesser (also called complex or curved-back parts industries) designate a tool-making tradition of the late Epipaleolithic or Paleolithic of the Northern European Plain, Poland (called Tarnowien and Witowien in this case). region) to northern France and Great Britain, succeeding the Magdalenian, dated between 12000 and 10800 BC. It is closely related to the Tjongerian culture of the Netherlands and Belgium, since it has been suggested that both cultures would be part of a more generalized complex that will take the name of Azilien. It used small flint blades and shared features with the Creswellian of Great Britain.

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Archaeological facies of Schnabelkanne

Archeological facies of Schnabelkanne defines a typology that refers to a homogeneous (or homogeneous) enochoos made in bronze and whose pouring spout is assigned a raised form. Most pitchers of this type have been found in an area including Switzerland and southern Germany. Other utensils of this kind have been evidenced in Gaul, Etruria and Padana, and within the Celto-Italian territories with golaseccante culture. These oenochoes were the subject of a very first field of study and cataloging, detailed and detailed, published in and directed by the French archaeologist Joseph Déchelette (-).

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Epipaleolithic

The final Epipaleolithic or Palaeolithic is a phase of the prehistoric recent, succeeding the Upper Paleolithic about 12500 years before our era and preceding the Mesolithic. Its definition is complex and involves chronological, climatic, environmental, social and technical elements. The Epipaleolithic is marked by the end of glacial times and a generalized softening, accompanied in Europe by an important development of the forest cover and thus by a modification of fauna (disappearance of gregarious species of open environment, especially reindeer, and development of forest species, including deer or wild boar). The way of life of the human groups of the Epipaleolithic is in continuity with those of the Paleolithic and their economy is always that of groups of hunter-gatherers. However, the environmental changes will induce a certain number of technical adaptations (generalization of the arc, more adapted to the hunting in forest, and thus production of flint reinforcements of small dimensions but always at the expense of blades) or behavioral ( development of individual hunting, on the lookout, exploitation of more diversified resources).

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Shang Dynasty

The Shang () dynasty, also called the Yin () dynasty, is according to Chinese historiography the second royal dynasty to have dominated China, from around 1570 to 1045 BC It succeeds the Xia dynasty and precedes that of the Zhou who supplants her in the middle of the. Since the 1930s, finds of oracular inscriptions on turtle bones and scales in Anyang, Henan have revealed that there was the last capital of the Shang, Yinxu kings, during the period from about 1250 to 1050. It is possible that the kings who ruled from other sites during the previous period, the Erligang period (c.1600-1300.), Were also members of the Shang Dynasty, but the absence of writing for this time does not confirm it. This period, which covers a large part of the country, sees many changes occurring in the Central Plain of China, primarily from the focus in the Yellow River Valley from which the Shang Dynasty emerges. The first states and the first cities develop, as well as a remarkable bronze craft, and the writing appears during the final period. Other regions of China are not left out, as remarkable crops have been highlighted in several places, including the Yangtze River Basin. The idea of ​​a seizure of the Shang kings over much of the Central Plain is therefore questioned.

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Dorset Culture

The Dorset culture, or Dorset, is an archeological culture that predates Inuit culture in the North American Arctic, particularly in northern Canada today and in Greenland. It is characterized by a lithic industry of microblades, small villages of half-buried rectangular houses and a sophisticated art.

The Dorset culture was named and defined in 1925 by the anthropologist Diamond Jenness to designate a collection of archaeological artifacts from Cape Dorset, Nunavut, that appear to have been produced by human groups with a lifestyle different from that of the Inuit and older. The Dorset was later subdivided into four periods: old (500 BC), medium (0-600), recent (900-1350) and late. Dorset cultural elements can be found in Thule sites up to.

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Wilton Culture

The Wilton or Wilton culture is a prehistoric cultural facies prevalent in southern and eastern Africa at Later Stone Age, about 6000 years old. This culture is particularly characterized by the presence of microliths and a typological diversity more marked than the previous cultures. It was defined by John Hewitt after excavating a cave on Wilton Farm in collaboration with C. W. Wilmot.

Wilton culture is documented in Kalambo Falls, on the border between Zambia and Tanzania, and in the Twyfelfontein Valley deposits in Namibia. A 2,300-year-old BC camp was discovered in Gwisho, Zambia, near Kafue.

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Karasuk culture

Karasuk culture, karasuk culture or karasuk culture (probably Russian: Karasuk being with Aman a tributary of Irtych, as well as a lake of the same region), is the name given to a group of Bronze Age societies, dating from -1200 to -700 and replaces the Andronovo culture from which it derives from an eastern branch.

It extended from the surroundings of the Aral Sea or the Volga in the west, to the high parts of the Yenisei River, around 1500 to 800 BC, and preceded by the Afanasievo Culture.

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Culture of Siba

The culture of Siba (1900-1500 BCE) is a Chinese culture of the Bronze Age. It is located in the Hexi corridor. She ensured communication between the populations of the West who brought bronze technology and the breeding of cattle and horses and those of the East, especially her neighbor in the East: the culture of Qijia. On the other side she has received cultural influences from inside China.

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Culture of Qijia

The culture of Qijia (2200-1600) is the first culture of the late Neolithic that makes, in China, the transition with the Bronze Age. It can therefore be considered a culture of the Bronze Age. It is located mainly in Gansu, east of Qinghai and south of Ningxia. Johan Gunnar Andersson discovered the first site in Qijiaping (齊 家坪) in 1923, as he searched west for the origins of Yangshao culture. Chronologically and culturally it follows and inherits the culture of Majiayao, a culture that includes copper and bronze objects, the oldest in China’s present territories.

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Culture of Little-Richard

The Peu-Richard culture is a Neolithic culture, established in Saintonge around 3400 BC. Its name is linked to the many remains found near the place called Peu-Richard in the town of Thénac in the department of Charente-Maritime.

This culture, whose origin is undoubtedly Atlantic, develops between 3400 to 2900 BC. J.-C. The habitat is grouped in fortified sites of more than diameter surrounded by ditches of wide and deep as those found on the communes of Barzan, Semussac, L’Éguille and Cozes.

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Longshan Culture

Longshan culture (or better: “Longshan cultures”) refers to a group of cultures with certain common characteristics, during a period called “Longshan Period” (2900-1900 BCE), Late Neolithic . These cultures developed into two distinct groups, on separate chronologies: one in Shandong, Liaodong and the other in the lower and middle Yellow River Basin, Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Hebei, Jiangsu and Hubei. Longshan culture is named after the town of Longshan on the territory of Jinan Commune in Shandong, where Wu Jinding, 吳金鼎, discovered the site of Chengziya, 城子 崖 “in 1928. This culture gave birth to a beautiful ceramic well differentiated according to the places of production. It is in this basin that would have imposed the mythical Xia dynasty, and that were constituted the kingdoms of the Shang and Zhou dynasties. Hence the huge investment in the Yellow River Basin that has benefited Chinese archaeological research, its objective being politically stated by Su Bingqi, in 1997: “The objective of modern Chinese archeology is to build the national history. But recent research in China has diversified beyond the Central Plain towards the North, the West near Gansu and the South or Southwest, and placing the Longshan culture within a larger number of cultures, none of which can claim an advance over others, and with other cultures having their own orientation.

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Culture of black and red ceramics

The Black and Red Ceramic Culture (CCNR) is an archaeological culture from the northern Indian subcontinent.

Culture of the Iron Age, it is dated between and and is associated with the post-Rigveda Vedic period. In some sites it is associated with Harappan Pottery, and according to some researchers like Tribhuan N. Roy, the CCNR may have directly influenced the culture of gray-painted ceramics and the cultures of polished black pottery from the north. Culture of black and red ceramics is unknown west of the Indus Valley. The use of iron, at first scattered, is rather early, posteriorly about two or three centuries after the beginning of the Iron Age by the Hittites in Anatolia, and two or three centuries earlier the iron age of the Celts of Europe. This culture was followed by the cultivation of gray painted ceramics.

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Cultivation of the ceramic decorated with the punch

The culture of punch-decorated ceramics or (in German) Stichbandkeramik (abbreviated as STK or STbK), Danubien Ib culture of Vere Gordon Childe, or culture of the Middle Danube is the successor of the culture of linear ceramics (banded culture), a major archaeological event of Neolithic Central Europe. The STK flourishes around 4600-4400 BC. Located in Silesia in Poland, in eastern Germany and in the north of the Czech Republic, it coexists with the Lengyel culture in the south and with the Rössen culture in the west.

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Komornica Culture

The Komornica culture name is attributed to the oldest traces of settlements in the territory of the Wieliszew municipality dating back more than 8000 BC. J.C. which were discovered in many archaeological sites on the territory of the village of Komornica (ex: flint tools). The so-called Komornica culture, which is one of the oldest cultures discovered on the East-European continent, dominated mainly Poland. In its western part it is replaced by the Chojnice-Pienki culture while in the east it is the culture of Janislawice that succeeds it.

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Prehellenic A

Prehellenic A is a linguistic concept postulated following the analysis of Greek toponymy. The Greek place-names ending in -nthos, -mn-, -r-, -m-, -n- and -ss- form indeed a set whose etymology can not be explained by the Greek. It has been deduced that they must result from languages ​​previously spoken in ancient Greek. The comparison with the Anatolian languages ​​of this previous state of the Greek language has led many authors to rank it among them.

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Culture of Daxi

The culture of Daxi (Chinese: 大溪 文化; pinyin: Dàxī wénhuà) refers to a culture of the Middle Neolithic Chinese (circa 5000 to 3300 BC) in the Three Gorges region on the middle course of the Yangtze River, in the southern region of present-day China. It could have been the source of the Qujialing-Shijiahe culture (3000-2100), which was contemporary with the last phase of Yangshao culture and especially the Longshan culture.

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Culture of Canegrate

The so-called Canegrate culture is archeological facies whose period develops at the age of the recent bronze, in other words within a phase chronology evolving between the and the end of the. This chrono-archeo- stratigraphic period is framed by the Terramare culture, which precedes it; and on the other hand, by the proto-culture of Golasecca which follows it. The geographical context of the Canegrate culture corresponds approximately to the present western half of Lombardy to which the eastern part of Piedmont is conventionally associated. Although weaker and more measured, it is also spreading in the western part of the region. The said culture is essentially characterized by a funeral rite of incineration. The latter manifests itself by incorporating the ashes of the deceased person into an urn. As a result, the latter comes from the whole archeo-culturalEuropean called ” to fields of urns ”. The cremated remains of the deceased are frequently accompanied by various artifacts carved bronze, but also fibula and ceremonial objects. In addition, the archeology of the Canegrate culture highlights a craft industry and a systematic use of a biconical type ceramic material.

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Culture of Beixin-Dawenkou

The Neolithic culture of Beixin-Dawenkou () consists of two cultures: the Beixin culture (v. 5300-4300 BCE) and the Dawenkou culture (4300-2600 BCE), in contact with from the Yangshao culture (4500 to 3000 BCE) in the Yellow River region, here in the lower reaches of the river while the Yangshao culture developed in the middle course. It shows a great continuity in time and a growing hierarchy of society. It was preceded by the culture of Houli (6500-5500) which, for its part, relates to the transition to the Neolithic, or neolithization of China.

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Culture of Erlitou

The ” ‘Erlitou culture’ ” () is a culture from the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. It constituted one of the first states on the present Chinese territory, (v. 1900/1800 – 1500 before the common era). It derives its name from one of its sites in Zhaizhen (), on the territory of Yanshi Commune (), in Henan West, and in the Luoyang area. Can be linked to its beginnings in the Longshan culture, it developed in the center-west of the Henan Basin, not far from the Zhengzhou Commune, on the middle course of the Yellow River in the South, to the Dan River at the South West. The Yiluo Basin, along the Yi (), Luo (), Ying (), Tu (), and the lower Fen () rivers, south of Shanxi, seem to be the heart of this culture. . During its late phase, it experienced some expansion in Hubei and Shaanxi. It is located in Henan and Shanxi, on the middle course of the Yellow River. A hundred or so important sites are attached to it, but there are some sites with elements of the culture of Erlitou in the South on the course of the Middle Yangzi and Southwest on the in Shaanxi. It was considered by a large number of Chinese archaeologists as corresponding to the Xia dynasty, following the traditionalist and historiographical approach. But the most consensual approach in 2012 thinks differently and gives less importance to the historiographical tradition. However, the identification of Erlitou with a capital of the hypothetical Xia Dynasty – whose history was written a thousand years after the fact – remains the subject of endless discussions, because not based on archaeological facts. However, the museums of China still systematically use this dynasty in the current cartels, as if it were not a myth, and the culture of Erlitou is thus confused in China with the Xia dynasty. This culture has been and still is the subject of much debate. The archaeological excavations were spread over about fifty years and involved about a hundred sites (in 2013). After this culture (1800-1500) of the first bronze age in China, the period of Erligang (around 1600 / 1500-1400 / 1300) has, it seems, allowed the development of a state, or even the first “civilization” in China.

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Colchidian culture

The Colchid culture, or culture of Colchis and culture of (in Georgian), is a protohistoric culture developed by the peoples of Colchis. This Caucasian archaeological culture extends from the early Bronze Age to the beginning of the Iron Age, over a period dated between 2700 and The Colchidian culture spread within the Plains of Colchis (territory which corresponds to the current western part of Georgia). It is particularly attested in the basin and the Rioni Valley and along the Georgian and Abkhazian coasts. This culture is mainly documented thanks to its remains, its tells, its religious deposits and its funeral furniture. The culture of Colchis is simultaneously contemporary and predecessor of that of Koban. In addition, these two protohistoric cultures present, by their metallurgical productions and their funerary rites, important analogies. The definition and the basic chronology of the Colchidian culture was established by the Georgian archaeologist Boris Kuftin in 1950. Periodization of this protohistoric culture was extended and redefined by the archaeologist E. Mikeladze in 1974.

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Capsian culture

Capsian culture was a Mesolithic culture centered in the Maghreb, which lasted from 10,000 to 6,000 BC. It was named after the city of Gafsa in Tunisia, which was Capsa, in Roman times.

The Capsian industry was mainly concentrated in Tunisia and modern Algeria, with some sites being attested in southern Spain as far as Sicily. It is traditionally divided into two horizons, the typical Capsian and the Upper Capsian, which are sometimes found in chronostratigraphic sequence. They represent variants of a tradition, the differences between them being both typological and technological.

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Civilization of the fields of urns

The ” ‘Civilization of the Fields of Urns’ ” corresponds to the archaeological culture groups of ‘Light-fluted ceramics’ (approximately from -1350 to -1150) and the ‘Rhine-Swiss-Eastern France Group’ (approximately from -1150 to -950) of the middle stage of the final Bronze Age (Final Bronze IIb and IIIa). It is the time when the diffusion of cultures and new metallurgical and ceramic techniques takes place in Europe at the end of the Bronze Age and ends at the beginning of the Iron Age. It is characterized by necropolis of buried urns.

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Catacomb culture

The culture of the catacombs, between 2800 and 2200 BC AD, refers to a culture of the ancient bronze age which occupied essentially what constitutes today Ukraine, it succeeds the culture of the Middle Dnieper. It had links with Yamna Culture and seems to be more of a geographical term covering several smaller archaeological cultures related to it.

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Castelnovian

The Castelnovien is a cultural facies of Prehistory. It characterizes the late Mesolithic of most of the northwestern Mediterranean basin. It was defined by the prehistorian Max Escalon de Fonton from the material from his excavations in the rock shelter of Font-des-Pigeons in Chateauneuf-les-Martigues, in the Bouches-du-Rhone. Compared to the other mesolithic facies, it is characterized by a debiting of standardized blades, probably partly carried out by the technique of pressure which are then fragmented by microburin and retouched in the form of geometric (trapezes, triangles or rhomboids).

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Butmir culture

The Butmir culture (in Bosnian:) is a Neolithic culture named after the Butmir site near Ilidža in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has developed between and. The figures and decorations of pottery from this culture make it specific. The objects found on site are now housed in the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo.

The culture of Butmir was discovered in 1893, when the Austro-Hungarian authorities began the construction of the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Sarajevo. During the works, several remains of human dwellings were unearthed, dating from the Neolithic period. Excavations were immediately undertaken and lasted until 1896. The discoveries aroused the interest of archaeologists all over the world and perhaps the International Congress of Archeology and Anthropology was organized in Sarajevo in August 1894. The discoveries the most impressive were unique ceramics, now in the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Certain features of the pottery drawings, and in particular their resemblance to those of the Minoan pottery of Kamares, made one think of a relation with the Minoans of Crete. This claim was made at the time when some thought that the city of Troy was in the valley of the Neretva River; today, the prevailing view is that the culture of Butmir is a culture in its own right that has developed in the Sarajevo region. The culture disappeared during the Bronze Age, probably with the arrival of the Illyrians who settled in the region at that time. The tribe that inhabited the area after the people of Butmir was that of the Daesiates.

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Culture of Baijinbao

The culture of Baijinbao (白金宝 文化) is a Bronze Age culture from northeastern China in the Songhua and Nen River Plain and contemporary to the Western Zhou Dynasty. It goes back to 900 BC. J-C. Its ceramic is similar to that of the central plain of China. The eponymous site is located in Baijinbao village of Zhaoyuan County, near the left bank of the Nen River. It was discovered in 1974 and was classified as [[Historic and Cultural Heritage Sites, National Historic (Heilongjiang) | historical monument]] in 1996.

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Gonur Tepe

The site of Gonur-depe in Turkmenistan was discovered by Soviet archaeologists from excavations that began in the 1950s. It is the main site of the archaeological complex bactro-margien. It is a [civilization] developed between Bactriana and Margiane from the end of the beginning of the millennium (c 2300-1700). Traces of an old agriculture are visible (delta of Murgaba) and dated VII millenium The conditions were reunited at the time for the cereal culture. Archaeologists have discovered the ruins of monumental fortresses and temples comparable to the constructions of Assyria and Babylon. The necropolis (whose anthropological study focused on more than 500 skeletons) discovered dates from the third millennium (date when Gonur was the capital of the kingdom of Margiane) and contains many objects utensils in the tombs (mirrors, silverware, alabaster pottery). Also on this site are glyptics, endemic mosaic panels from the region, and multiple bronze artifacts. This suggests the growth of trade between ancient civilizations in Central Asia at the time.

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Archaeological complex bactro-margien

The archaeological complex bactro-margien (English translation of Bactria and Margiana Archaeological Complex, abbreviated BMAC), also called in French in the archaeological tradition, “” ” ” Oxus civilization ” ‘”, are appellations which serve to designate an intercultural civilization that flourished between Bactria and Margiane (Turkmenistan, present-day Uzbekistan and Afghanistan) between the end of the millennium and the beginning of the millennium (c 2300-1700). This civilization that characterized Central Asia in the early Bronze Age was mainly identified by Soviet archaeologists from excavations that began in the 1950s. It presents a great homogeneity from one site to another.

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Situla Art

The art of Situla is a figurative style of decoration represented in the Eastern Alps (Northern Italy, Austria, Slovenia) between the It has applied in particular to a type of bronze vessels called “situles” (from the Latin situla, “Bucket”), hence its name. It is found in the artistic production of peoples such as the Venetians of the Adriatic, the Illyrians, the Celts and the Etruscans. The decor is often made of several registers of friezes surrounding the vase and representing religious scenes, warrior or drawn from everyday life or animal motifs. These scenes seem to have a narrative and ritual value, not just decorative. The decor in superimposed registers is not original; it is known in the ancient Near East and is common in Greek Ionic and Proto-Corinthian ceramics. It is an Orientalizing influence, such as animal or warrior friezes and some plant motifs. This influence is more pronounced on older situlae. The scenes of everyday life (banquets, games, etc.) are more original.

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Culture of Anzabegovo-Vrchnik

The ” Anzabegovo-Vrchnik culture ” is a prehistoric culture that existed on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia in the early Neolithic. It is part of the Balkan-Anatolian complex and owes its name to two archaeological sites, Anzabegovo (in Macedonian Anzebegovo), located near Chtip, and Vrchnik (Вршник), located near Vinitsa. It develops from 5300 to 4200 BC. J.-C. The crop can be divided into four phases (Anzabegovo-Vrchnik I-IV); the first phase is itself composed of three sub-phases (Anzabegovo-Vrchnik I-a-b-c). This first phase took place at the beginning of the Neolithic while the following three took place during the Middle Neolithic. The sites expressing this culture are found mainly in the east of the Republic of Macedonia, in valleys such as Bregalnitsa and in the vicinity of Skopje. Nearby artifacts have also been found in the Bulgarian valleys of Strouma and Greek Vardar, suggesting expansion to these areas. The houses of Anzabegovo-Vrchnik I are built of earth alone, while those of the following phases are wickerwork and have small foundations and tiled floors. The dead are always buried near the houses, in a contracted position but without particular orientation. Three kinds of pottery were produced throughout the four periods. The first have thin walls and light colors, due to cooking, and grains of mica. The second are coarse and unadorned and the third, rarer, are also rough with large walls but they are made of earth mixed with glitter or small pebbles. During phases I and III, red predominates, while during phase IV potteries are gray and black. Those of phase II are characterized by gray and brown colors as well as by rib ornaments. The pots in phase I are often decorated with white paint, which forms bands, triangles and plants.

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Culture of Andronovo

The culture of Andronovo, or the Andronovo family of cultures (an archaeological horizon) which, during the second millennium, spread over a very wide area in southern Siberia, to the Amou-Daria basin in the south , and from east to west between the ranges of the Altai and the Urals. This set of cultures, has gone through three different periods: the old phase (), the middle phase () and the recent phase (). Most researchers associate the Andronovo horizon with the speakers of the first Indo-Iranian languages, although it may have ridden in the northern fringes the region of.

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Ais (tribe)

Ais is the name of a Native American tribe who lived in Florida along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.

The Ais territory extended over several present-day counties in Florida (Brevard County, Indian River County, Saint Lucie County, Martin County), and bordered the Atlantic coast from the Indian River and Cape Canaveral. as far as Lake Okeechobee inland.The language spoken by the Ais was compared to that of the Muskogean languages, the Arawakian languages ​​and the Caribbean languages ​​without giving it a precise origin.

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Age of the Atlantic bronze

The age of the Atlantic bronze designates a cultural complex approximately between 1300 BC. J.-C. and 700 BC J.-C which includes different cultures of the Iberian Peninsula, the British Isles and the Atlantic coast of France. It is characterized by the cultural and economic exchanges of some surviving indigenous cultures that will eventually give way to the Indo-European Iron Age (mostly Celts) at the end of the period. Its main centers seem to be in Portugal, Andalusia (Tartessos?), Galicia and Great Britain. His commercial contacts extend to Denmark and also the Mediterranean.

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Culture of Afanasievo

The ” Afanasievo ” ‘(or Afanasevo, Afanasyevo) culture is a southern Siberian culture, dated from 3300/3200 to 2600/2400 BCE. From an archaeological point of view, it expresses a material culture of the age of copper.

The Afanasievo culture is best known from excavations carried out in the Minusinsk region of southern Krasnoyarsk Krai in southern Siberia, but is also found in western Mongolia, northern Xinjiang. East and central Kazakhstan, with connections or extensions to Tajikistan and the Aral Sea region, or even further east to Xinjiang and beyond, to western China, through Qijia culture

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Culture of Abashevo

The ” ‘culture of Abashevo or culture of Abachevo’ ‘(Russian: Abashevskaya Культур’ ‘) is a late Bronze Age culture (circa 2500-1900 BC) found in the waters of the Volga and Kama rivers, north of the Samara elbow, and in the southern foothills of the Ural Mountains. It takes its name from the village of Abashevo in the Chuvash Republic. The discoveries of the remains of establishments are kurganes. The Abashevo culture was the easternmost of the cultures of the Russian forests zone of the tradition of corded ceramics. The economy was mixed farming. The cattle were also exploited. There is evidence of domesticated horses and cars, which by its equipment have been compared to those of Mycenae culture. It follows the tradition of Yamna culture with regard to burial practices in tombs. Sanctuary offerings are scarce, no more than one or two vessels. There is evidence of copper smelting which appears to be related to the cultivation of copper mining in the Southern Urals. Linguistically, although it is only speculation, it is presumed Indo-Iranian. There has been contact with speakers of Uralic languages, and it is an appropriate place for one to conceive borrowing words on both sides. Occupying part of the previous Fatianovo-Balanovo culture, the eastern variant of early corded ceramics culture, although any relationship between the two cultures remains unknown. His successor is the culture of Srubna. Category: Bronze Age Category: Ancient people Abashevo Category: Archeology in Russia

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Archaeological culture

An archaeological culture is a set of archaeological artifacts, limited to a period and a geographical area, and coming from the same people and allowing to reconstitute a culture or a civilization disappeared nowadays. An important topic of investigation concerns the collection of data concerning the “so called” barbarian kingdoms in Eastern and Western Europe.

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Royal Belgian Society for Oriental Studies

The Royal Belgian Society for Oriental Studies (SRBÉO) is a society which aims to promote Oriental studies in Belgium and which brings together all the researchers specialized in the various disciplines of Orientalism while at the same time being open to simple amateurs passionate about the things of the ancient and modern Orient. His activity is at once scholarly, multidisciplinary and directed towards the cultivated public. In 1921 and at the initiative of Paulin Ladeuze (1870-1940), rector of the University of Louvain, the Orientalists of Belgium created the “Belgian Society of Oriental Studies”, which had as its first president the Indianist Louis from La Vallée-Poussin (1869-1938) and as first vice-president the Egyptologist Jean Capart (1877-1947). The aim was to give Belgian Orientalists the means to promote their sciences but also to meet and exchange the fruits of their research. In the presidency, Christian Bolsheist and specialist Paul Peeters (1870-1950), historian and Egyptologist Jacques Pirenne (1891-1972), Islamologist Armand Abel (1903-1973), the Egyptologist Aristide Theodorides (1911-1994) and, since 1995, the Egyptologist Christian Cannuyer (Catholic University of Lille), assisted by two vice-presidents, the Islamologist Daniel de Smet (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, CNRS Villejuif – France) and the hittitologist René Lebrun (Professor Emeritus of the Catholic University of Louvain). In February 2017, the “Belgian Society of Oriental Studies” received the patent of the title of “royal” that King Philippe deigned to grant to the association.

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Imperial Orthodox Society of Palestine

The Imperial Orthodox Society of Palestine (Императорское Православное Палестинское общество) (or IPPO) was founded on May 8, 1882 by Vassili Khitrovo with the permission of Emperor Alexander III of Russia. It was reformed and confirmed in 1919, 1922, 1925, 1930, 1952, 1986, 1989, 1992, 2002 and 2003. In 1918, it was renamed Russian Society of Palestine dependent on the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic . Its field of activity is today both in the Russian Federation and abroad. In September 2008, the government of Israel decided to return to Russia the building that once housed the Russian Orthodox Hotel St. Sergius, or St. Sergius Mission in Jerusalem, which had become the Ministry of Agriculture. Israeli. He had belonged until the October Revolution to the imperial society of Palestine and counted among his chief benefactors the Grand Duke Serge Aleksandrovich of Russia. This decision was effective in February 2009.

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Society of history and archeology of the borough of Saint-Malo

The ” ‘Society of History and Archeology of the district of Saint-Malo’ ” is a learned society whose object is the study and the historical and archaeological research in the district of Saint-Malo and of the ancient dioceses of Dol and Saint-Malo. It was founded in 1899 by Louis Duchesne, Hippollyte Harvut, Jean-Marie Hamon and Eugene Herpin, Étienne Dupont. The Society of History and Archeology sets itself the task of safeguarding the historical and archaeological heritage (monuments, buildings, urban or natural sites …) of the region. It currently has 710 members and organizes twelve meetings a year, five excursions and various local visits. It publishes each year the “Annals of the Society of history and archeology of the district of Saint-Malo” which report the research of its members, and published tables covering all the “Annals” until 1999. The Society awards a student prize each year. It is part of the Federation of Historical Societies of Brittany, which groups together ten companies.

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Archaeological Society of the South of France

The Archaeological Society of the South of France is a historical-artistic society founded in Toulouse in 1831, by fourteen amateurs in the salon of the Marquis de Castellane, its first president. It makes known the monuments of the South of France. It is one of the first “antique” companies created in the provinces, after Rouen and Caen. His works are published in an annual volume of memoirs. It has its seat at the Assézat Hotel.

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Archaeological Society of Touraine

The Archaeological Society of Touraine (SAT), founded in 1840 and recognized by public utility in 1872, welcomes all those, amateur or curious, students or professionals, who are interested, work or want to work on the study, defense and illustration of the past of Touraine and its heritage.

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Archaeological Society of Athens

The ” ‘Archaeological Society of Athens’ ” (in Greek) is one of the main Greek archaeological organizations. The company was founded in 1837 under the impetus of King Otto as the first institute of the new independent Greek state to promote and explore the legacy of ancient Greece in general, and Athens in particular. The first president was Ludwig Ross. Soon after its creation, it began extensive archaeological programs: in 1839-1840, it began excavations in Athens, clearing the Tower of the Winds, the monument of Thrasyllos, the Propylaea of ​​the Acropolis and the Erechtheum. In 1840-1841, she brought to light the theater of Dionysus. After a pause due to financial difficulties, the Society sponsored excavations in Athens every year between 1858 and 1894. It played an important role in the concession of the different Greek archaeological sites to foreign institutes (French School of Athens, British School at Athens, American School of Classical Studies, etc.) competing for them. The Archaeological Society publishes each year a summary of the work of its various missions, and a review which presents the detailed results.

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Regional Service of Archeology

The ” ‘Regional Archaeological Service (SRA)’ ‘is, since 1991, the service of the French State competent in archeology within each Regional Directorate of Cultural Affairs (DRAC). This department of the Ministry of Culture is headed by the Regional Curator of Archeology. Its mission is to study, protect, conserve and promote archaeological heritage in the region. It oversees the application of legislation and regulations: It has a controlling role on the excavations and must ensure that the results are published. It must also initiate or support public information actions. The regional curator of archeology directs the excavations carried out by the State, controls the excavations, records the fortuitous discoveries and informs the competent authorities of the clandestine excavations. He is also responsible for updating the archaeological map.

Royal Archaeological Institute

The Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland is a learned society founded in 1845, whose main activity is the publication of a journal devoted to archaeological news published since 1844. It is the president for 30 years until in 1882, a year before his death. The current president is Professor David Hinton. The academics and are also part of the professors emeritus. The interests of the institute include all aspects of the archaeological, architectural and landscape history of the British Isles and the former British Empire. It also organizes conferences and seminars and finances and participates in excursions to archaeological sites and landscapes. He also works in coordination with other archaeological groups.

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The Prehistoric Society

The Prehistoric Society is an international scholarly society dedicated to the study of man’s past from the earliest times to the emergence of written history. Based today at University College London in the United Kingdom, it was founded by V. Gordon Childe, Stuart Piggott and Grahame Clark in 1935 but its origins also go back to the ancient Prehistoric Society of East Anglia which began in 1908. The association is a registered charity in English law. Membership is by subscription and includes the Annual Review, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society and PAST newsletter, published in April, July and November. It also regularly organizes conferences, conferences and other events and grants grants for archaeological research.

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Österreichisches Archäologisches Institute

The Österreichischen Archäologischen Instituts (Austrian Archaeological Institute, often referred to as ÖAI) is a scientific organization that conducts archaeological research on the territory of ancient civilizations, the former Habsburg Empire and Austria. It depends directly on the state.

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Ohio Historical Society

The Ohio Historical Society is a nonprofit incorporated in 1885, “to promote knowledge of archeology and history, particularly in Ohio. It was founded by Roeliff Brinkerhoff. Category: Historical Scholarly Society Category: Archaeological Center or Institution Category: Columbus (Ohio) Category: Ohio History Category: Founded in 1885

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French archaeological mission of Chabwa

The French archaeological mission of Chabwa is a French archeology research team at the Chabwa site (Yemen). It was created at the initiative of Jacqueline Pirenne in 1974. Its main area of activity was the Governorate of Shabwa, a modern administrative division that covers approximately the territory of three ancient kingdoms, Hadramaout (Capital Shabwa), ‘Awsan (Capital Hajar Yahir) and Qatahan.

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House of the Orient and the Mediterranean

The ” Maison de l’Orient and the Mediterranean Jean-Pouilloux ” ‘(or MOM) is a research federation (FR 3747) based in Lyon, whose field of study is the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. Orient, from the first steps of humanity to today. It is dedicated to its founder, the historian Jean Pouilloux. Created in 1975 under the name House of the Ancient Mediterranean Orient, its activity is characterized by a largely multidisciplinary work. It employs 350 people: archaeologists, epigraphists, historians, with the help of physicists, chemists and geologists. Geographers, political scientists and architects are also collaborating. It is constituted by a research federation grouping four mixed research units (UMR) of the CNRS. This federation is statutorily associated with the Université Lumière-Lyon-II.

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Israel Exploration Society

The Israel Exploration Society is an association created in April 1913, the 11 nissan according to the Hebrew calendar, by a group of Jewish intellectuals living in Ottoman Palestine. One of its objectives was to serve as an antiquities department and to establish a library and museum in Jerusalem, with archaeological excavations in the region being carried out by foreign institutions and researchers. It is created under the name of Jewish Palestine Exploration Society; after Israel’s independence in 1948, she became the Israel Exploration Society under the leadership of Benjamin Mazar. The Israel Exploration Society publishes several journals, excavation reports and scholarly publications in both English and Hebrew. These publications are references in archeology in Israel.

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Swiss Institute of Rome

The Swiss Institute of Rome is a Swiss cultural and scientific institution housing Swiss artists and researchers.

The Swiss Institute was founded in 1949. The deputy Emiliano Maraini had built in 1903 a sumptuous building, the villa Maraini in the district Ludovisi. The couple Maraini, without children, decided to bequeath in 1946 this property to Switzerland, with charge for it to put the domain at the service of the cultural exchanges between Switzerland and Italy.

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German Protestant Institute of Archeology in the Near East

The ‘Deutsches Evangelisches Institut für Altertumswissenschaft des Heiligen Landes’ (‘French Protestant Institute of Archeology’), founded in 1900, is a biblical and archaeological institute in the Middle East. Research unit of the German Archaeological Institute, it is established on two sites, in Jerusalem in Israel and Amman in Jordan.

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National Institute of Preventive Archaeological Research

The National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research (Inrap) is a French public administrative research institution created by the law of 17 January 2001 on preventive archeology. It replaced the Association for National Archaeological Excavations (Afan), an association law of 1901. It is placed under the joint supervision of the ministries in charge of Culture and Research.

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European Institute of Underwater Archeology

The European Institute of Underwater Archeology ” ‘(IEASM), founded in 1987 by Franck Goddio, is an association law 1901 whose mission is to search archaeological sites of historical importance, to ensure the excavation, the conservation, scientific studies and publications, and public disclosure through books, films and exhibitions. The European Institute of Underwater Archeology is chaired by Franck Goddio.

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Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences

The Archeology Institute ” ‘is a scientific institution belonging to the system of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The institute has its origins in the Imperial Archaeological Commission founded in 1859. The Soviet of the People’s Commissars by a decree of April 18, 1919 creates in Petrograd the “Russian Academy of History of Materialistic Culture” to which are attributed the functions of the former archeology commission and whose members are the former members of this commission. In 1926, the academy was reorganized into the State Academy of History of Materialistic Culture. She entered in 1937 in the field of management of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR with the title of institute. Its headquarters are in Leningrad with a subsidiary in Moscow. The institute was transferred to Moscow in 1943, while the Leningrad office decimated the population, and the Leningrad establishment became a mere subsidiary. On September 4, 1959, the institute was renamed the Institute of Archeology of the USSR Academy of Sciences and in 1991 the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1948, the institute conducted research in Mongolia, and in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s in Egypt, Bulgaria, Albania, Iraq, Afghanistan, Hungary, Mongolia, Yemen, Syria and the Spitsbergen archipelago. Among the excavations carried out, we can distinguish those that have uncovered the oldest human presence south of the Arabian Peninsula (Yemen), ancient agricultural sites in Mesopotamia (Iraq) and temple complexes of the 4th and 3rd centuries BC In Syria, as well as royal burials of the ancient period in Afghanistan. In the early 1990s, the institute went through extremely difficult times with the economic collapse of the country. Since then, with the help of the Russian Fundamental Research Foundation (set up on April 27, 1992), the Russian Humanitarian Scientific Foundation (set up in 1994), the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and from a few private donors, the institute was able to resume its expeditions and searches, but on a smaller scale. Director of the Moscow branch 1934-1937: Achot Ioannissian

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Colombian Institute of Anthropology and History

The Colombian Institute of Anthropology and History, or ICANH () is a governmental scientific and technical agency affiliated to the Colombian Ministry of Culture in charge of research, production and dissemination of knowledge. on the themes of anthropology, archeology and colonial history as well as the protection of the archaeological and ethnographic heritage of Colombia.

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Archaeological Institute of St. Petersburg

The Imperial Archaeological Institute (Императорский Санкт-Петербургский Археологический институт) is an archeology institute founded in 1877 in St. Petersburg on the initiative of Nikolay Kalachov (1819-1885), of which he was the first director. The purpose of this institute was to train archaeologists and archivists in a two-year course. The teaching staff includes Izmail Sreznevski (1812-1880), Ivan Andreyevsky (1831-1891, director until his death), Nikolai Pokrovsky (1848-1917, director), Sergei Platonov (1860-1933, last director) and later Wilhelm Barthold (1869-1930). The institute published the “Collection of the Archaeological Institute (1878-1898) and the Messager of Archeology and History” (1885-1918). In 1922-1923, the institute was transferred to the Department of Archeology and Art History of the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Petrograd. Her address was at Vasilievsky Island, then at No. 4 Catherine Canal.

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American Archaeological Institute

The Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) is an American non-profit organization dedicated to developing public interest in archeology and the preservation of archaeological sites. The institute is based at Boston University. The institute was founded in 1879, and was chaired by Charles Eliot Norton until 1890. Since 1897, he has published the American Journal of Archeology. Category: Archaeological Center or Institution Category: Organization founded in 1879

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German Archaeological Institute of Rome

The German Archaeological Institute of Rome () is the oldest archaeological research establishment in Rome and one of the nucleus of archeology. Nowadays, the institute is a department of the German Archaeological Institute. Coming from the Roman, it is considered a federal institution sitting in Berlin and attached to the Federal Office of Foreign Affairs. The Institute of Rome has a world-class library, one of the largest specialized photographic collections in Italy and a multitude of tools for scientific work, including extensive archives and a catalog to quickly locate publications. At the center of the research of the German Archaeological Institute of Rome are the archeology of Italy and North Africa, from Prehistory to the Middle Ages. The current director is Ortwin Dally, deputy director Norbert Zimmermann.

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National Fund for Preventive Archeology

The National Fund for Preventive Archeology is a French Equalization Fund for the financing of preventive archeology in this country. It was created by the law on preventive archeology of August 3, 2003. Its purpose is to contribute to the financing, under certain conditions, of archaeological excavations. Its management is ensured by INRAP in the form of a budget annexed to that of this establishment. However, decisions on the use of appropriations are made by the administrative authority (regional prefectures, Ministry of Culture). The Fund is financed by a levy, set annually by the “administrative authority”, on the proceeds of the preventive archeology fee. This levy can not be less than 30%. In 2004, the FNAP was not set up by INRAP, in charge of its administration, which qualifies it as a “subsidiary budget” (INRAP Annual Report 2005 p.37). Its effective creation dates back to 2005. In 2004, faced with the weakness of the FNAP due to the recent implementation of the RAP (preventive archeology fee partly covered by the DRAC and partly in the urban planning services of the State and Territorial Communities), an exceptional grant of € 10 million was paid by the Ministry of Culture and Communication to INRAP under the FNAP. An identical allocation was paid to INRAP for the FNAP in 2009 under the Recovery Plan (Circular Balsamo of the Directorate of Heritage, July 10, 2009).

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Escuela Internacional de Arqueologia and Etnologia Americanas

Escuela Internacional de Arqueologia y Etnologia Americanas (1912-1920) is an international school of archeology and ethnology of America established in Mexico City. The idea was proposed in 1904 by Nicholas Butler, president of Columbia University, New York. Should be involved, besides the Mexican government, Columbia, Pennsylvania and Harvard universities, the American Hispanic Society, Prussia and France. The statutes were drawn up in 1910 at the XVIIth International Congress of Americanists and signed on September 4 this year by Ezechiel Chavez (1868-1946, Mexico), Eduard Georg Seler (Prussia), Louis Capitan (France), Franz Boas (Columbia ), Roland B. Dixon (Harvard), George B. Gordon (Pennsylvania) Archer Huntington (SHA). They were slightly modified and confirmed on January 23, 1911, after the parties, except France, had ratified them. The Bavarian, Saxon and Russian governments joined the school in 1912-1913. Mexico provided a local, an annual grant and pledged to facilitate research. The collected pieces had to go to the Mexico City Museum, the participants receiving casts. The ratifying entities, with the exception of the SHA, each designated a representative to form the governing body of the institution. They sent pensioners and took turns managing the school for one year. The first director was Eduard Seler, the second Franz Boas. The third was to be chosen by France, but the latter still not ratifying, Franz Boas appointed to succeed Georges Enguerrand (1877 -1961), geologist Franco-Mexican student of Elisha Reclus. Boaz and Chavez considered stratigraphy as essential to the development of modern archeology. Because of its large foreign participation, the school met from the beginning a certain hostility on the part of the Mexican intellectuals, which was accentuated during the revolution and especially in 1917, when it was learned that some students and specialists had accepted to assume a role of spy in the context of the First World War. The case eventually led to the closure of the school.

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