The Xiping Stone Classics (Chinese: 熹平 石 经) are the Seven Confucian Classics whose text has been engraved on steles in Luoyang, capital of the later Han. These Classics are the Classics of Mutations, the Classics of Worms, the Classics of Documents, the Annals of Spring and Autumn with the, the Classical of Rites, the Conversations of Confucius. The enterprise was ordered in 175 by the Emperor Lingdi and was completed in 183. The text was established by Cai Yong and was engraved on forty-six stelae, in the style of lishu calligraphy. There are only fragments left. About 200,000 characters were engraved on both sides of these forty-six steles. The National Library of China keeps some fragments.
Claros, in ancient Greek, Latin Clarus, is a city, important oracular sanctuary dedicated to Apollo on the territory of the city of Colophon in Ionia (Asia Minor).
The archaeological excavations have cleared various buildings and especially a large number of Greek inscriptions with a strong historical interest and some of which are still unpublished. Several of these inscriptions shed light on the relations between Rome and the Greek cities, others testify to the functioning of the sanctuary and the consultations of the oracle. Several inscriptions giving the text of oracles made by Apollo to Claros have been found in other Greek cities, they often date from our era and many of them were intended to fight against a plague epidemic. They have often been compared with the antonine plague. The names of the great epigraphist and historian Louis Robert and his wife Jeanne Robert remain attached to the excavation of Claros and the study of inscriptions concerning the sanctuary. In Claros, the oracles were rendered by the Bakids, male characters, as opposed to the oracles of the Sibyls or Pythias, female characters.
The Cippus Abellanus is a stele engraved with inscriptions in the Oscan language discovered on the site of the ancient city of Abella (Avella today) in 1745 (it was then used as a door base). It is believed that the inscriptions date from the end of these inscriptions use the Etruscan alphabet, which will itself be accommodated by the Romans to create the Latin alphabet. It is an agreement marking the boundaries between the cities of Abella and Nola at the height of a temple, set by Q. Fabius Labienus in 183 BC. J. – C. following a dispute. The stone is 192 cm high by 55 wide and 27 thick. It is now preserved in the archaeological museum of Nola. In Latin, the word cippus (equivalent to the Greek stêlê) most often refers to a pillar-shaped post on which information about the boundaries of a territory or its extent (this territory is indicated by the words slaagid-slagím and has recently been associated with a toponym still alive.The Cippus Abellanus corresponds only partially to this description because it is not cylindrical or cubic, but flat with two engraved sides (like the cippus of Perugia). the most important testimony of the osque language that came to us with Tabula Bantina.
The Melqart cippes are two marble cippes unearthed in Malta, at the end of. The bilingual inscriptions engraved on their base, in ancient Greek and Phoenician, are at the origin of the deciphering of the Phoenician.
The two cippes date from; of Phoenician origin, these objects serve as funerary monuments and censer bollards. Made of white marble, the cippes have a candelabra shape, thin and narrow, decorated at their base with carved acanthus leaves, resting on a molded parallelepiped base. The pedestals bear a bilingual inscription on one of their faces, in ancient Greek and Phoenician, describing their dedication as ex-voto by two brothers,’Abdosir and ‘Osirchamar, to Melqart, deity of Tire identified by syncretism with Hercules.
The chronogram (or sometimes chronograph) is an inscription in prose or verse whose letters corresponding to numbers in a literal type numeration system (such as Greek literal numeration, Arabic numeral numeration or Hebrew numeral, etc.) allow to form the date of an event. Roman numerals having been confused with letters, they were also used as well (M = 1000, D = 500, C = 100, L = 50, X = 10, V = 5, I = 1). In a pure chronogram each word contains a number; a natural chronogram gives all the figures in the correct order, for example “aMore MatVrItas” = MMVI = 2006. Until then, the chronograms were very popular, especially in Germany and the Austrian Netherlands.
The Canadian Center for Epigraphic Documents (CESC) was established in February 2010 as a non-profit organization to archive, catalog and digitize epigraphic documents. The center’s team is composed entirely of professional volunteers and graduate computer science students.
The stele of Avile Tite is a monumental stele, carved in limestone from high dating from 550 BC. Circa BC, preserved at the Guarnacci Museum in Volterra.
The monumental stele, dating from 550 BC J. – C., came to us in two fragments. It represents a warrior in bas-relief bearing a speaking inscription which carries the name in the form “I [am] of Avile Tites, … uchsie mi ha donato”, according to a typology typical of Northern-Tyrrhenian Etruria with Greco-Oriental influences. The warrior, to whom is dedicated the funeral stele, is represented completely armed and turned in profile to the left with the legs apart. He wears a short tunic, a cuirass, shoulders (protection of the shoulders) and cnemides (protection of the shins). He is armed with a spear and a dagger, a double-edged sword with a curved blade. The body is in profile like the face with a pointed beard, hair in stairs, the eye lying down and the lips sketching a smile. The style is characterized by the taste of monumental and full forms, typical of pure ionic style. The “lazalic” type of hair reflects the provincial environment of the warrior in a fashion that was to be common at the time.
In historical sources and medieval Tibetan legends, Zhang Zhung, Shang Shoung or Shang Shung () is the name of a kingdom occupying the current Ngari Prefecture, west of the Tibet Autonomous Region, in the People’s Republic of China. China, which was militarily conquered by the Tibetan Empire (629 – 877) at, under the reign of Songtsen Gampo. It is called Yangtong () or Xiangxiong () in Chinese sources. The tradition of the Shamanic religion Bonpo claims that it is from here that came the Bon Yungdrung, precursor of Tibetan Buddhism after syncretism with Buddhism. In the long history of rivalry between the bonpo and Buddhist religions, the kingdom occupies the symbolic place of the “other Tibet”, opposed to the Tibetan empire. Due to geographical, cultural and political barriers, archaeological exploration of western Tibet began timidly less than twenty years ago. His promising discoveries have encouraged the Tibetan Academy of Social Sciences to join the research in recent years.
Xituanshan Culture (西 团 山) is a Bronze Age culture from Jilin Province in northeastern China. It extends into the Second Songhua Valley on the territory of present-day Changchun and Jilin Towns between the Weihuling Mountains and the Lalinhe, East Liaohe and Yitonghe Rivers. It was divided into three periods: the old phase (Western Zhou period, -1046 to -771), the middle phase (Spring and Autumn period, -771 to -481/453) and the late phase (Kingdom period fighters, -481/453 to -221). One of its features is the stone rockstone tombs that serve only one person. It is also remarkable for its three-foot vases of type ding and li that denote relations with the central plains of China. The villages are located near the rivers on low terraces. The houses are 25 to 40 m², are semi-buried and have a rectangular fireplace. Their walls are stone or covered with mud.
The Xinglongwa (興隆 洼 文化) culture, from 6200 to 5200 BC, is the first known Neolithic culture (in 2012) of northeastern China. It is found mainly on the current boundaries of Inner Mongolia and Liaoning provinces, in the Xiliao and Daling basins.