The ugly culture (sometimes called mochica) is a pre-Incanic pre-Columbian culture that stretched along the Peruvian north coast, roughly between the year 100 and 700 AD. It was contemporary with the Nazca culture that occupied the south coast of Peru, being located chronologically between the Chavín era (ancient horizon) and the Chimú era. The brilliant culture of the mochicas is contemporary with the Maya of Mesoamerica and precedes the famous Inca empire for more than eight centuries.
At ap. BC, different cultures shared the northern coast of Peru, all heirs of the Chavín and Cupisnic cultures, the most remarkable being:
In the Moche valley (located in the current region of La Libertad) at the foot of Cerro Blanco, the Salinar culture quickly gives way to Les Moches. The city of Moche is gaining importance with the beginning of the construction of two buildings, Huaca de la Luna and Huaca del Sol. These buildings, which then have only one floor, already serve respectively as place of worship and administrative center. The influence of this home reaches the valley of Virú at the expense of the culture of the same name.
More or less parallel, in the region of Lambayeque located further north, the center Moche de Sipán is also developing, the city is gaining importance and dignitaries Moches are buried in a remarkable funeral center. The remoteness of these two centers already implies a good control of the territory and therefore an elaborate military organization on the part of Les Moches, as soon as their kingdom was formed.
The majority of the Moches military conquests are located during and. The borders widened along the coast: to the south, extending to the valleys of Chicama and Huarmey, and to the north to Piura, encroaching largely on the territory Vicús, assimilating this people as and when conquests. At their peak, the Moches control an essentially coastal territory extending over 600 kilometers long. In addition to the historical centers of Moche and Sipán, they build important military bastions to maintain the borders: Pampagrande in the north and Pañamarca in the south. It was during this period, around the year 300, that the lord of Sipán lived. At their peak, around the, the Mochica occupied nearly 500 kilometers of Peruvian coastal coastline, from the Piura Valley to the north to the Huarmey Valley to the south. In this region, the excavations have uncovered vast domestic areas, temples, palaces and mausoleums with spectacular tombs. The similarities between the architecture and objects found on the various sites, such as Huaca el Pueblo where the tomb of the Lord of Ucupe was discovered, indicate that the populations of the different mochica towns maintained close relations.
Many historians located the end of the Moches around the year 600. But now, thanks to more precise excavations, we find the end of Les Moches around the year 700. This first date, which turned out later false, is due to the fact that it was first assumed that the situation had gradually deteriorated in the kingdom, it facing catastrophic floods of major rivers and especially río Moche because of the phenomenon El Niño. However, this hypothesis was refuted by archaeologist Santiago ”. This “phenomenon took place, the proof being large cracks on the Huaca del sol. But in his research, Santiago discovered that it was not El Niño that had brought about the end of the Mochicas, because archaeological excavations have proved that after this one, dating back to 600 AD, life continued at home. the Mochicas. It was found that above the layer of earth corresponding to the time of this natural disaster, many other constructions were still built, built by the hand of Les Moches. However, it has turned out that this phenomenon has decisively marked the Moche culture. The end of the Moches is located around the year 700. It is assumed that the situation has gradually deteriorated in the kingdom, it facing catastrophic floods of major rivers including the roche Moche because El Niño phenomenon, as well as repeated earthquakes during. Shortly after the decline of the ugly society, the Sican culture developed in the same regions, and later again it was the Chimú culture.