Huari



The Huari civilization (or Wari) refers to a people who flourished during the pre-Inca period of the middle horizon. It originated in the Christian era in the region of Ayacucho located in the Andes of southern Peru today. The capital of the same name is located near the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. This city was the center of a civilization that covered many highlands and the coast of modern Peru. First, their territory expanded to include the center of the old oracle of Pachacamac, although it seems to have regained its autonomy. Later, it expands to include many of the territories of the ancient Moche culture and the late Chimu culture. The best preserved remains of the huari culture remain near the town of Quinua. Also famous are the huari ruins of Pikillaqta (the “flea town”), a short distance south-east of Cuzco towards Lake Titicaca, which date back to before the advent of the Incas. The expansion of this ancient kingdom began first towards the coast towards the very important religious center of Pachacamac which seems to have kept a strong autonomy. Later, the Huari extend to the north on the lands of the ancient culture Moche and where will subsequently develop the Chimú civilization. At its peak, the huari civilization spans the entire coast and the highlands of central Peru. The Huari were contemporaries of the Tiahuanaco civilization that developed on the Bolivian high plateau on the shores of Lake Titicaca. These two civilizations have only recently been differentiated by archaeologists because of the many commonalities between the two cultures, particularly in the artistic field. It would seem that the two civilizations were in contact only during about fifty years during which they clashed sporadically. One possible source of conflict is the presence of mines at the limits of influence of the two cultures. The Huari appear to have been weakened by this rivalry, and declined to. The Huari were great builders: they set up administrative centers in several of their provinces; they developed a system of terracing to increase the productivity of agriculture in the mountainous regions; they also structured their kingdom through many routes that the Incas will later incorporate into their communication system. It is often considered that the Incas, who emerged three centuries after the disappearance of Huari, are the heirs of this civilization.

In Ayacucho there existed the Huarpa culture, which developed important economic contacts with the Nazca civilization. Thus occurred a remarkable development of the artisanal production in this city. The presence of Tiahuanaco o Tiwanaku culture in Ayacucho is attested by the representation of a deity engraved on the “Door of the Sun”. This image, like the angels that accompany it, is drawn on large urns Ayacucho, which we know as conchopata style, because this style comes from this locality. Conchopata was not a large city but spread over a considerable area, without agglutinating the population. In this context the Huari culture was spread since the Huarpa culture, between 560 and 600. We observe the development of a ceremonial ceramics known as “Robles Moqo” extending over a larger area, including the regions of Ayacucho, Ica, Nazca, the Santa Valley and beyond the mountain to Callejón de Huaylas. This first expansion consecrated the first phase of the Tiwanaku-Wari Empire. Conchopata is located 25 km northeast of Ayacucho. This city was the capital of a complex imperial state whose area of ​​influence extended from Cajamarca and Lambayeque (in the north) to Moquegua and Cuzco (to the south). Thus, it covered almost 120 hectares, for the densest part, where lived a few thousand families. The city was made of rustic stones, with very high walls of stones and mud, just like the terraces and platforms. The creation of the empire was made possible by the union with Tiahuanaco ‘. In the city of Huari, one can observe monumental edifices, such as public buildings, mausoleums, temples and residences. The most famous are in the Uspa Qoto and Capillayoq sectors. In the Cheqowasi sector, there are highly worked pieces of stone. These are underground mausoleums with various rooms. These coins probably had to be used for the preservation of the bodies of important dignitaries of the city. In addition, at the foot of the walls of the buildings, the supply of water was provided by a network of canals. In this city was produced a very elaborate polychrome ceramics, polychrome fabrics, small turquoise sculptures, jewels and various handicrafts.he developed on the highlands between 550 and 900. His influence on the huari is notable in the religious field and funerary rites. On certain ceramics, appears the representation of deities with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic traits, similar to those of Viracocha (god of sticks) of the Tiahuanaca culture. This divinity is found in later cultures. It is represented on the Sun Gate located in the Kalasasaya complex (in Bolivia).

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