History of the great powers

The history of the great powers presents a chronology of Nations or States that have dominated the world from the beginnings of antiquity to the present day because of their advanced political, economic, technological and / or military status. This status makes it possible to enjoy an influence and an international influence unmatched on the same space and time space. However, when a country accedes to it, it is not for all that legitimized by the whole of the international community and still less irreversibly established in its position. Indeed, because of the more or less visible will of each State to impose itself on the world stage (as evidenced by certain policies such as the creation of intelligence services or the complexity of diplomatic relations), it can be seen that many Civilizations have been able to gain leadership, but few have been able to keep it for more than a few centuries. Although the longevity of some is an optimal management vis-à-vis the era, there has always been a period of decline during which the balance of power has changed. In spite of this, because of the development of all aspects of society and the planetary enrichment almost constant over the ages, it is clear that the great powers of yesterday could not have the pre-eminence that benefited the United States since the end of the First World War or that will surely have the emerging countries during the. In other words, relative to other powers the world leader or leaders have had a more or less deep advantage depending on the time, but the comparison between powers of different eras seems superfluous because they can not be evaluated according to the same criteria, simply because of technical progress, for example.

The term Ancient Near East refers to the civilizations that developed in the period before classical antiquity in the present-day Middle East. From the Bronze Age (around IV millennia BC) to the peak of the Persian Empire, this region has seen civilizations rise in Sumer, Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq and Syria) , Anatolia (Turkey), the Levant and Egypt. Here the term great power is attributed to some nations in quite a relative way. These countries were small in scope, for example, but had unparalleled stability and power over the period and the region.

Sumer was one of the earliest civilizations in the Near East, established in southeastern Mesopotamia from mid-to-late Babylon until the end of May. This period is often referred to as the Sumerian period. The term “Sumerian” then applied to all individuals speaking the Sumerian language without distinctions. Like ancient Egypt and the civilization of the Indus Valley, Sumer is considered one of the first sedentary societies to have acquired the characteristics that made it a proper civilization. The first empires of Mesopotamia were formed from the south of this region: Sargon of Akkad, who will have a mystifying posterity (the first of its kind), was a Semite (not a Sumerian) who founded around 2340 what is often considered the first empire of history, the Akkad Empire. This empire witnessed the first great changes of the political, ideological and artistic type. Its administrative organization was hierarchical, its economy structured (especially in the levy of taxes), and it dominated a multitude of micro-states conquered during many campaigns extending from southern Turkey to the Persian Gulf. It collapsed around 2109 By 2112, the relay was taken by the kingdom of the Third Dynasty of Ur, which dominated for a little over two centuries Mesopotamia and some adjacent regions. This dynasty will be extinguished with Ibbi-Sin who will not be able to withhold the sacking of Ur by the Elamites in -2002.

Elam is one of the oldest known civilizations to date. Its culture had a major role in the construction of the Persian Empire, and more particularly in that of the Achaemenid Empire, when Elamite became one of the official languages. It is customary to say that the history of Iran begins at this time.

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