The Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (ZPE)



The Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (ZEP) (ISSN) is a German scientific journal founded in 1967 and appearing four or five times a year. It is one of the most important journals in the fields of Greek and Latin epigraphy and Greek and Latin papyrology. Ludwig Koenen (co-founder) is one of his big names, as well as Reinhold Merkelbach.

Continue reading “The Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (ZPE)”

Tabula Osca



The Tabula Osca or Osque Tablet is a bronze inscription written in the Oset alphabet on a bronze plaque that dates from. She was found near the town of Agnone in Molise in Italy. Since 1873, the original has been preserved in the British Museum. The Tabula Osca, with the Tabula Bantina and the Cippus Abellanus, is one of the most important inscriptions in the long-gone osque language.

This small bronze tablet, attached to an iron chain that was discovered in 1848 on the banks of the Sangro River at Fonte di Romito, between Capracotta and Agnone, was bought at the merchant Alessandro Castellani by the British Museum in 1873.

Continue reading “Tabula Osca”

Tabula Bantina



The Tabula Bantina is a bronze osque tablet, dating from the end of BC. AD

One of its faces is written in the Oscan language and constitutes the most important testimony of this language with the Cippus Abellanus (the other side is written in Latin). The found inscription consists of fragments always incomplete, called “fragment of Naples” and “fragment of Adamesteanu-Torelli”. The fragment of Naples was found in 1790 on Mount Montrone, in the municipality of Oppido Lucano, and is now exposed to the National Archaeological Museum of Naples. The second fragment was discovered in 1967 by Mario Torelli and is kept in the Adamesteanu Museum in Venouse. Dinu Adamesteanu believed that the text osque, for the second fragment at least, was actually a translation of an original text in Latin made by a person who did not perfectly master the osque language.

Continue reading “Tabula Bantina”

Eugubine tables



The Eugubin Tables () are bronze tablets found in Gubbio (the ancient Iguvium), in Umbria, a region of central Italy.

One named Paolus Greghori and a certain Presentina would have discovered the 7 eugubine tables in the Roman theater of Gubbio around the year 1444. More precisely, according to the consul and notary Antonio Concilio (who published a book on Gubbio in 1673), the tables were discovered in a subterranean mosaic floor not far from the Roman theater. There is controversy over the actual number of tables discovered which could be 9 in total. They were sold to the municipality of Gubbio on. A book by Johannes Smetius published in 1588 is the first to offer a reproduction of tables. Bernardino Baldi ordered the first official translation delivered to him in 1613, but was strongly criticized by the academic community. In 1614, the Dutchman Adrien van Schrieck, in a book on the origins of peoples in Europe, refers to Table VII in which he claims to recognize the old Belgian language. Between 1728 and 1734, the French Louis Bourguet proposes an interpretation of the tables in Latin character. In 1961, the Latinist Alfred Ernout published a study of the texts of the Engubian tables, where he expressed a large number of reservations about the “ambitious” interpretations of his counterparts.

Continue reading “Eugubine tables”

Nestorian Stele of Xi’an



The ” ” Nestorian Stele of Xi’an ” ‘in China is a stele dating back to the Tang period, erected on January 7, 781, which describes the first one hundred and fifty years of the history of Christianity in China. It establishes that the Christian religion has been practiced for a very long time in China. From the eighth century, the mission of the Church of the Orient, called Nestorian, is recognized by the emperor Tang Taizong. His most famous priest, Alopen spoke Syriac, probably came from Persia, and was in 635 authorized by the emperor to reside in his capital of Chang’an (now Xi’an); the stele reports that he built a church there in 638.

Continue reading “Nestorian Stele of Xi’an”

Stele n ° 1 of La Mojarra



The Stele of La Mojarra is a pre-Columbian Mesoamerican monument from the Late Preclassic Period, dated to the second century AD, around 156 CE (common era), and epi-Olmec culture. Its name comes from the place of its discovery near the village of La Mojarra, in the state of Veracruz in Mexico, not far from the archaeological site of Tres Zapotes. It is a basalt block with a weight of four tons and a height of. One of the sides of the block is occupied by a bas-relief presenting the full-length portrait of a man with a very elaborate headdress and costume. And on all of its faces, it presents more than 500 glyphs of epi-olmec writing or isthmic today still partially deciphered.

Continue reading “Stele n ° 1 of La Mojarra”

Stele of vultures



The Vultures Stele, or ” ‘Eannatum’s Victory Stele, King of Lagash’ ”, is a historically dated stele from the Archaic Dynasties III (2500-2340 BC), circa 2450 BC. BC commemorating the victory of the city-state Lagash on his rival Umma. She was exhumed in fragmentary state on the site of Tello (ancient Girsu) in Mesopotamia. This is the first historically known stele, emphasizing a military victory and the warrior role of the ruler. It is kept in the Department of Oriental Antiquities of the Louvre.

This stele commemorates the victory of the city of Lagash on his enemy Umma around 2340 BC. The conflict was between the two cities because of a piece of land allocated by the king of Kish Mesilim Lagash a century earlier but claimed the city of Umma. The stela has on both sides a Sumerian text of 830 lines, written in the first person in the name of King Eannatum to glorify his victory. It is the most important historical document of the time of the archaic dynasties.

Continue reading “Stele of vultures”

Stele of Mesha



The Mesha Stele is a basalt stele discovered in 1868 and engraved with an inscription dating back to the time of the Moabite king Mesha (). The text of thirty-four lines (the longest recorded discovery so far for this time of ancient Israel), is written in Moabite. Dating from 850 BC BC, about the victories of Mesha during his revolt against the kingdom of Israel he undertook after the death of his suzerain Ahab.

Continue reading “Stele of Mesha”

Stele of Victory Hill



The Victory Hill Stele () is a commemorative stele of the Jin Dynasty. It was erected in 1185 by Emperor Shizu in honor of the resolution made there in 1114 by Aguda and his 2500 warriors with the aim of overthrowing the Liao Dynasty. This stele is found on the prairie 1.5 km east of Shibeichengzi Village in Fuyu District, Jilin Province, northeast of the People’s Republic of China.

Continue reading “Stele of Victory Hill”

Stele of Kwanggaet’o



The ” ‘Kwanggaet’o’ ‘stele was erected in 414 in honor of King Kwanggaet’o of Koguryo on the orders of his successor, Changsu. She is near her grave in the Chinese city of Ji’an, near the Yalou which marks the border with North Korea, which was then the capital of the kingdom. Carved in a block of granite nearly seven meters high, it supports on all four sides a text written in classical Chinese and composed of 1802 characters. It is of particular importance since it is the oldest written local document that provides information on the history of a Korean kingdom. It is also known as the Gwanggaeto Stele (Romanization used in South Korea) and the Haotai King Stele or Haotaiwang Stele according to Chinese usage. The Kwanggaet’o spelling is based on the McCune-Reischauer romanization. A life-size copy is on display in Seoul and two stamped copies of the text are in the possession of China and the National Museum of Japan.

Continue reading “Stele of Kwanggaet’o”