The toichographology (from the ancient Greek τεῖχος, toichos, “wall”, γράφειν, graphein, “to write”, “to paint”, “to draw” and λόγος, logos, “speech”, “science”) is a discipline of the dedicated archeology excavation and study of murals. It is particularly applicable to the study of paintings and stuccoes from antiquity. A specialist in this discipline is a toichographologist.
Prehistory (not capitalized), also called prehistoric archeology, is a discipline that aims to reconstruct the history and life of humans from their appearance until the appearance of writing, during the chronological period of same name (“Prehistory”, with capital). It is therefore essentially based on the examination and interpretation of the testimonies of the human presence such as the archaeological remains discovered during excavations or the works of the parietal art.
Paleopathology (from the Greek παλαιός, palaios, “ancient”, πάθος, páthos, “passion, mania, disease” and λόγος, logos, “word, explanation, theoretical study”) is a branch of medicine specializing in the study of diseases and degenerative changes seen in past populations. This is a young discipline for which no specific teaching is yet available: paleopathologists are trained in the analysis of human remains, either as part of a medical education of pathological anatomy or forensics, or in the specialized biology teaching (prehistoric anthropology or paleoanthropology,). As was the case for Egyptology, paleopathology was initially created by isolated researchers, such as Philippe-Charles Schmerling or later Marc Armand Ruffer, who developed methods and techniques and gradually formed a new scientific branch.
Paleopalynology, also known as archeopalynology, is the retrospective study of organic-walled microfossils as indices for reconstructing relative ages, biozones, palaeoenvironments, palaeoclimates, and so on. from a more or less recent past to very old ones like the Precambrian. These studies require that palynomorphs have been preserved in significant quantity and quality for the periods considered. It is based on the study of fossil palynomorphs. It is the most widely developed application of palynology. It is particularly important in petroleum research, and for the retrospective evaluation of the response of ecosystems to climate change. The pioneer is Arlette Leroi-Gourhan (1913-2005).
Hittitology is the part of Assyriology devoted more specifically to Hittite, their language and their history. The Hittites are an ancient people of Indo-European language settled mainly in Anatolia (present-day Turkey). The center of their country was the Hatti with for historical capital Hattusa.
Histoarchaeometry is the study of the artwork through the application and interpretation of natural science data into art history studies, combined with traditional methods of historical inquiry and so-called ancillary sciences. usually associated.
Geoarchaeology or Quaternary geology is the discipline that studies archaeological sediments. At the hinge of the natural sciences and human sciences, it can be defined as a geological approach to an archaeological site. In particular, it is used in some protocols to prepare diagnoses of archaeological potential on a large scale, and to optimize the deadlines of preventive archeology as part of the preparation of major construction sites.
” ‘Ethnoarchaeology’ ” is a form of archeology in which researchers analyze and interpret data from archaeological excavations based on the practices and material productions of today’s traditional populations.
Epigraphy is the study of inscriptions made on non-stone materials (so-called “lapidary inscriptions”), clay or metal. This science aims to date them, to place them in their cultural context, to translate them and to determine the information that can be deduced from them.
The person who practices this science is an epigraphist. Medals, monuments or ancestral bas-reliefs, do not bear inscription or title. The study of ancient handwriting, usually done in ink, is a separate field called paleography.
Dunhuangology () is the science of studying Dunhuang sites, including the Mogao Grottoes, their manuscripts and murals.