Collapsology is the study of the collapse of industrial civilization and what could succeed it. Developed by Pablo Servigne and Raphaël Stevens in their essay Comment tout tout collombrer: Collapsology, a short collapsology manual for current generations published in 2015, is an applied and transdisciplinary science involving ecology, economics, anthropology, sociology, psychology, biophysics, biogeography, agriculture, demography, politics, geopolitics, archeology, history, futurology, health, law and art. This systemic approach is based on the two cognitive modes of reason and intuition, as well as on recognized scientific works, such as the 1972 Meadows Report, the “A safe operating space for humanity” and “Approaching a” studies. state shift in Earth’s biosphere “published in Nature in 2009 and 2012, or the article” The trajectory of the Anthropocene: The Great Acceleration “published in 2015 in the scientific journal The Anthropocene Review.
The terms universal civilization and world civilization are linked to a perception of the effects of globalization. They refer to the global sharing of ways, values, practices, beliefs, and even directions.
Some consider that globalization makes us witness the emergence of what Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul called a “universal civilization”. Václav Havel writes: According to the defenders of this point of view, the changes that globalization brings lead us to think differently about issues related to culture or civilization. They argue that the development of information and knowledge technologies and technologies in general, trade development, migration or tourism, would be the basis of this world civilization. CS. Naipaul and Fouad Ajami are the most fervent defenders.
The medieval translations of the French prose Bible, that is to say, Bibles written like the ones we read today and which resembled the Latin versions to the point of being taken for them, are few. Often, we preferred to adapt in verse because it offered a great freedom of improvisation or comment. The first “true” integral translations date from the end of. The translations of the Psalter into Germanic and Romance languages are among the oldest known translations ().
” Theories on the risk of collapse of industrial civilization ” are theories about the risks of imminent decline in the contemporary industrial world that include the extinction of many living species, including mankind, and ‘part of a process of global collapse. These conceptions describe a systemic risk of planetary catastrophes caused directly by its mode of operation. These theories of collapse are not based on direct scientific evidence, but rely on measurable indices and documented studies. The apocalyptic warnings (or the end of the world) are part of an old tradition, but the originality of the current theories is that they are based on scientific facts whose reality is recognized by scientific and institutional reports and expertise, such as those of the Club of Rome, the IPCC, international military authorities, the World Bank and the Davos Forum. In addition, the risks put forward are now based on human activity.
The Hittite Military Oath (CTH 427) is a Hittite text inscribed on two cuneiform tablets. The first tablet was preserved only as fragments (KBo XXI 10, KUB XL 13, and other minor fragments), the second tablet was copied in triplicate, and was able to be restored almost completely. The oldest copy (KUB XL 13) is fragmentary, but two more recent copies (KUB XL 16, KBo VI, 34) are well preserved. The text is in Old-Hittite, and contains some transcription errors committed by later scribes, and represents the oath pronounced by the military leaders. More precisely, he describes a series of symbolic acts whose purpose is to represent the afflictions that were to fall on those who take the oath, if they failed in their word.
It is called rice civilization all territories and populations of which rice is (or rather was) the main crop and the main food. It covers mainly the Asian continent and opposes as such the civilization of wheat (Europe and the Middle East) and corn (America). This concept, coined by the French historian Fernand Braudel, is mainly applied to the history of the world from Antiquity to. By the end of, the first globalization blurs the tracks and makes this description obsolete. Rice is the civilization plant of the Asian continent. Braudel tells us that it is a “dominant, tyrannical” plant. Rice and wheat come from the same geographical area: Central Asia. The West chose wheat while the Orient opted for rice. The main advantage of rice on wheat is to be able to produce two or even three harvests a year. These yields, however, require a very strict agricultural calendar and permanent efforts, which is not the case for wheat.
The Eastern Party in Greece reflects the concept of the Eastern Party, in the countries of the Third World, in opposition to that of the Western Party, a concept used by both the peoples concerned and the social sciences, for more than a century to define the opposition of the majority of the population to the attempts of their westernization. Since the West sees Greece as its mother, many refuse to accept that it can be part of the non-West and persist in believing that the eastern party in this country is a marginal phenomenon. But, according to Dimitri Kitsikis, “the Eastern Party has always been the best advocate of the Greek tradition which is inseparable from Orthodoxy. Hellenism is not only a nation, it is a civilization that once radiated the entire surface of the Intermediate Region. ”
The term “western world” can be confusing because it covers different realities according to the times and according to political, cultural, ideological, religious or philosophical considerations. It is therefore interesting to study it in a historical perspective. The Western world or, more simply, the West means, in a classical vision, a cultural area inheriting from ancient Greece (thought, science) and ancient Rome (right) and later imbued with Judeo-Christian Catholic and Protestant culture. In this sense, the roots of the West go back to ancient times. It finds its origin in the establishment of colonies by the cities of Ancient Greece which diffused little by little their civilization on all the Mediterranean rim. It was under this influence that the city of Rome gradually developed to the point of forming a vast empire. In 296, Diocletian administratively divided the Roman Empire into two parts: the East and the West, establishing a first boundary between what will long be the Eastern world and the Western world. After a period of relative decline during the Middle Ages, the West developed more strongly than the rest of the world with the Renaissance and then with the Enlightenment in freeing itself from the influence of the Church, before reaching its culminating with the Industrial Revolution of, the European colonization of the world and finally with the political revolutions of the, which established secularism and parliamentary democracy.
The West, or Western world, is a geopolitical concept that is generally based on the idea of a common civilization, heir to the Greco-Roman civilization from which modern Western society emerged. His current employment also implies a distancing with either the rest of the world or one or more other areas of influence of the world such as the Arab world, the Chinese world or the Russian sphere of influence. Originally this distanciation was expressed against the East and Constantinople. Indeed, the political notion of the West gradually emerged from 285 with the division of the Roman Empire, when the Roman Empire of the West, which uses the Latin alphabet forms around Rome, and that the Empire Eastern Roman who uses the Greek alphabet is constituted around Constantinople. The decline of the Western Roman Empire culminated in the end of Western political unity in 476, without undermining religious unity, leading to the expansion of the influence of the Roman Catholic Church to the Church. Northern Europe and Central Europe. The advance Omeyyade in Spain is stopped by the reestablishment of a western military unit under the command of Charles Martel, victorious in Poitiers in 732. It is in this context that Charlemagne takes the title of emperor of the West in the 800. In 1078, the Seljuk Turks prohibited Christian pilgrims from entering Jerusalem, leading in 1096 to the beginning of the Crusades during which Westerners launched armed expeditions into the “Holy Land”. The schism of 1054 had meanwhile marked a break in principle between Rome and Constantinople, the opposition then became religious. The fourth crusade, diverted by the Republic of Venice, concludes with a sack of Constantinople by the Crusaders. It weakens the Eastern Empire durably, but begins the Renaissance in the West. From there, the world knows two important upheavals: the Protestant Reformation which upsets Western Christianity and the capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans. The capture of Granada in 1492 marked at the same time the end of the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula. The European states abandon the Silk Road and begin to look for new routes to the Indies: this period named “Great Discoveries” leads to the gradual conquest of the “New World”. There will be a period of technological progress, the establishment of colonial counters, which will become colonial empires, the “Age of Enlightenment” and finally the industrial revolution. The Russian Empire is westernized from Peter the Great but the advent of the USSR will lead during the second half of the Cold War and a bipolar world dominated:
The ugly culture (sometimes called mochica) is a pre-Incanic pre-Columbian culture that stretched along the Peruvian north coast, roughly between the year 100 and 700 AD. It was contemporary with the Nazca culture that occupied the south coast of Peru, being located chronologically between the Chavín era (ancient horizon) and the Chimú era. The brilliant culture of the mochicas is contemporary with the Maya of Mesoamerica and precedes the famous Inca empire for more than eight centuries.
At ap. BC, different cultures shared the northern coast of Peru, all heirs of the Chavín and Cupisnic cultures, the most remarkable being:
The Mississippi civilization (or Mississippi culture) developed between, east of the Mississippi River, on the present territory of the United States. It can be attached to the culture of the Mound Builders, because it has produced large funeral mounds (tumulus). This civilization began to flourish in the Mississippi Valley, hence its name. It seems that it completely disappeared before the arrival of European settlers in North America.
Mare nostrum is a Latin expression which translated literally means “our sea” by evoking the Mediterranean.
The Romans have always preferred land to ships. For example, against the Carthage fleet at the Battle of Cape Ecnomus in 256 BC. JC, while Rome still had little experience in maritime matters, they won thanks to the crows (or iron hands) which immobilized the enemy ships and thus allowed the ground troops to fight in a close combat to which they were accustomed on the land. And even later, when the Romans were able to control the Mediterranean and all its seacoast, they considered it a kind of “swimming pool”, hence the expression mare nostrum, and avoiding the ocean beyond. beyond the columns of Hercules.
Malaise in civilization (original title: Das Unbehagen in der Kultur), sometimes translated in a way modeled on German, by Malaise dans la culture, is a book written by Sigmund Freud in the summer of 1929 and published in 1930.
In the aftermath of the First World War, which had led Freud to highlight, in 1920, the death drive in Beyond the Pleasure Principle, he broadened the perspective beyond the unconscious in the strict sense to endeavor to highlight a similar mechanism, at work at the level of culture, understood in the sense of civilization, as everything that governs and nourishes the common life of humanity. It is one of the few works in which Freud uses his metapsychology outside the psychoanalytic field alone, to put it in a social perspective, asking the question of whether civilization is moving towards a progress capable of overcoming destructive drives that drive it. Freud states in particular that:
The maize civilization is all the territories and populations where maize is (or rather was) the main crop and the main food. It covers the American continent and opposes as such the civilization of wheat (Europe and the Middle East) and rice (Asia). This concept, coined by the French historian Fernand Braudel, is mainly applied to the history of the world from Antiquity to. By the end of, the first globalization blurs the tracks and makes this description obsolete. Thus, wheat is massively introduced by Europeans on the American continent since. Corn is the civilization plant of the pre-Columbian American continent. Strangely, European scholars thought that this plant came from Asia while it was introduced in Europe following the discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus. Maize is the staple crop of the most solid pre-Columbian civilizations such as the Incas, the Mayans and the Aztecs.
Meluhha was the name given by the Akkadians and then the Sumerians of the Ur III dynasty (this term appears in the cuneiforms around 2350) to a prosperous region which seems to be situated beyond the ancient lands of Dilmun (a priori the island of Bahrain) and Magan (probably the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, from the Sultanate of Oman to Yemen) and which is generally identified with the Civilization of the Indus Valley.
The Islamic civilization or Muslim world designates according to each era. . This article discusses aspects of this civilization at different times, regardless of the Islamic religion.
The Muslim religion was born in Arabia in 610 when Muhammad presented his revelations. In a hundred years, it spreads to an important part of the Mediterranean basin by Arab conquests. After the fall of the Umayyads dynasty (750), the Muslim world is divided into several political entities (caliphate, emirates, sultanates) often rival. In, the irruption of the Seljuk Turks from Central Asia in the Near East and North Africa and causes the Crusades. The Ottoman Empire lasted from 1299 to 1922 with three significant dates: capture of Constantinople in 1453, siege of Vienna in 1529, battle of Lepanto in 1571. The Ottomans aspired to the title of caliph from 1517 and again in 1774; from then on, the Ottoman Sultan would be the official bearer of the caliphate until the abdication of the last of them, Abdülmecid II, in 1924.
The Huari civilization (or Wari) refers to a people who flourished during the pre-Inca period of the middle horizon. It originated in the Christian era in the region of Ayacucho located in the Andes of southern Peru today. The capital of the same name is located near the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. This city was the center of a civilization that covered many highlands and the coast of modern Peru. First, their territory expanded to include the center of the old oracle of Pachacamac, although it seems to have regained its autonomy. Later, it expands to include many of the territories of the ancient Moche culture and the late Chimu culture. The best preserved remains of the huari culture remain near the town of Quinua. Also famous are the huari ruins of Pikillaqta (the “flea town”), a short distance south-east of Cuzco towards Lake Titicaca, which date back to before the advent of the Incas. The expansion of this ancient kingdom began first towards the coast towards the very important religious center of Pachacamac which seems to have kept a strong autonomy. Later, the Huari extend to the north on the lands of the ancient culture Moche and where will subsequently develop the Chimú civilization. At its peak, the huari civilization spans the entire coast and the highlands of central Peru. The Huari were contemporaries of the Tiahuanaco civilization that developed on the Bolivian high plateau on the shores of Lake Titicaca. These two civilizations have only recently been differentiated by archaeologists because of the many commonalities between the two cultures, particularly in the artistic field. It would seem that the two civilizations were in contact only during about fifty years during which they clashed sporadically. One possible source of conflict is the presence of mines at the limits of influence of the two cultures. The Huari appear to have been weakened by this rivalry, and declined to. The Huari were great builders: they set up administrative centers in several of their provinces; they developed a system of terracing to increase the productivity of agriculture in the mountainous regions; they also structured their kingdom through many routes that the Incas will later incorporate into their communication system. It is often considered that the Incas, who emerged three centuries after the disappearance of Huari, are the heirs of this civilization.
The history of the great powers presents a chronology of Nations or States that have dominated the world from the beginnings of antiquity to the present day because of their advanced political, economic, technological and / or military status. This status makes it possible to enjoy an influence and an international influence unmatched on the same space and time space. However, when a country accedes to it, it is not for all that legitimized by the whole of the international community and still less irreversibly established in its position. Indeed, because of the more or less visible will of each State to impose itself on the world stage (as evidenced by certain policies such as the creation of intelligence services or the complexity of diplomatic relations), it can be seen that many Civilizations have been able to gain leadership, but few have been able to keep it for more than a few centuries. Although the longevity of some is an optimal management vis-à-vis the era, there has always been a period of decline during which the balance of power has changed. In spite of this, because of the development of all aspects of society and the planetary enrichment almost constant over the ages, it is clear that the great powers of yesterday could not have the pre-eminence that benefited the United States since the end of the First World War or that will surely have the emerging countries during the. In other words, relative to other powers the world leader or leaders have had a more or less deep advantage depending on the time, but the comparison between powers of different eras seems superfluous because they can not be evaluated according to the same criteria, simply because of technical progress, for example.
Clément Montfort = Clément Montfort is a French journalist and documentary director born on December 15, 1986 in Annecy. He trained at La Télé Libre, an association created in 2007 by journalist John Paul Lepers. Clément Montfort holds a degree in Political Science from Université Lumière Lyon 2, as well as a Master’s degree in Sociology of Culture and Publicity from the University of Avignon.
The decline of civilization is a common idea that the life of civilizations would follow a cycle of life: gestation, birth, growth, climax, and decline. Examples in support of this thesis are often:
It is possible to classify the causes of the decline of civilizations into two broad categories: endogenous causes, generated by civilization itself (political and social crises, structural crises, financial crises, wars, etc.), and exogenous causes, that is to say, external causes such as the appearance of epidemics, diseases or natural events (climate, volcanoes …).
According to mythology, the Dananese (also called Denyen) leave Atlantis to settle on the island of Rhodes: the name of the island comes from a Syrian word meaning “snake”. This people worship a goddess named Dana, whose graphic representation is a moon and a snake. But as Cyprus was called Danan by the ancient Egyptians, they could also have settled on this island. The Danean wizards are called Telchines. According to the Greek historian Diodorus, these magicians have the power to heal, change the weather and can also metamorphose as they see fit. Although at present their origin is still unknown, the Dananeans seem to come from the north of the Orontes (Hattay).
The “province” or “kingdom” of Cofitache which is a Muskogean-speaking chiefdom located in present-day South Carolina.
The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order is the title of an essay on political analysis written by American Harvard professor Samuel Huntington, published in 1996 and translated into French in 1997. Very controversial since its publication, the book has given rise to many debates. The theory developed by Huntington was originally published in an article in Foreign Affairs in the summer of 1993. As this article provoked many positive and negative reactions, Huntington wanted to deepen his theory and develop all its aspects by publishing a book entitled The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Rebuilding the World Order “). Huntington’s project is to develop a new conceptual model for describing the functioning of international relations after the collapse of the Soviet bloc in the late 1980s. However, it does not claim to give its model a validity that extends beyond the end of the beginning and the beginning of and relies on a geopolitical description of the world based no longer on “political” ideological cleavages, but on more blurred cultural oppositions than he calls “civilizational”, in which the religious substratum holds a central place, and on their often conflicting relations.
The clash of civilizations is a concept and a tool for analyzing history. The historian Bernard Lewis invented it in 1957, in the aftermath of the Suez Canal crisis, at a symposium on tensions in the Middle East, organized at Johns Hopkins University in Washington. The political scientist Samuel Huntington takes up this concept in his article, published in the review in 1993. He finally popularized it with the publication of his book The Shock of Civilizations (in English,), published in 1996.
The Chalybes (in (Khalibebi) in Greek Χάλυβες, Χάλυβοι) are a people of Antiquity, a Georgian tribe to whom the invention of steel is generally attributed. In Latin, the word Chalybs meant steel according to Virgil; steel object according to Seneca. Xenophon warns them in Book IV of his Anabasis, and craftsmen of iron, which they extract from mines; they are subject to their neighbors the Mossynecs, a people west of the Pont-Euxin. Their country abounded in iron mines: Xenophon and Apollonius of Rhodes speak about it – Apollonius says they sell it.
Cartivelios (Latinized in Cartivellaunus) is a Celtic Brittonian king who reigned over the Coritani people, in the East Midlands of present-day England.
Wheat civilization refers to all the territories and populations where wheat is (or rather was) the main crop and the main food. It includes a large part of Europe, the Mediterranean basin and the Middle East. It is opposed in this respect to the civilizations of maize (America) and rice (Asia). This concept, coined by the French historian Fernand Braudel, is mainly applied to the history of the world from Antiquity to. By the end of, the first globalization blurs the tracks and makes this description obsolete. Wheat is a plant of civilization that is often linked to the olive and the vine. These three cultures are found elsewhere (since before, China is already massively growing wheat) but they are significant of Western civilization, including the Middle East. The first civilizations of wheat, vines and olive trees are located in the Middle East in Mesoptamia and Egypt in particular.
The Besses are an ancient Thracian tribe of the Balkans.
In antiquity, its territory stretched from the high basin of the Evros Rhodopes. Herodotus also locates them “in the mountains of the northwestern Kingdom of Odrysia,” adding that they practiced divination and interpreted the prophecies of the priestess of the oracle of Dionysus at Satrae. Strabo calls them “brigands among robbers” and looters. But Theodor Mommsen locates their capital, Uscudama, further down the Evros, on the site of the future Adrianople while archaeologists identify it in Bessapara, now Sinitovo near Pazardzhik, Bulgaria.
Originally, the term “barbaric”, borrowed in French in 1308 from the Latin barbarus, itself derived from the ancient Greek / (“foreign”), was used by the ancient Greeks to designate peoples not belonging to their country. civilization (defined by the Hellenic language and religion), and of which they could not understand the language. Barbarian meant then “non-Greek”: any person whose language resembled, for the Greeks, a mumbo-jumbo “bar-bar.” The term “barbarian” was then used by the Romans to name the peoples who are at the outside, in the “land of Barbarians”, that is to say out of their authority: the. For the Greeks as for the Romans, any “barbarian” can, by adopting their language, their gods and their manners, become Greek or Roman, and this was the case not only of many individuals (some of whom managed to reach the imperial function ), but also whole peoples, accepted in the Empire as. However, these terms could also reflect the fear or contempt inspired by the foreigner, the invader who does not present himself as an ally, in potential, but in conquering wanting to impose his manners and his power in the For Thucydides, “Barbarian” also has a technical meaning: that of local values opposed to the universal values sought by the civilized, for example those that put the interest of a clan above the detriment of the common interest, the “public good”.
The Arzawa (ancient Arzawiya form) is a kingdom and region of Western Anatolia whose history is known only to external sources, mainly from the neighboring kingdom of the Hittites, who have repeatedly fought in this region. The exact location of Arzawa is still debated. It is located in southwestern Anatolia, between Lycia and Lydia posterior. It could have been extended to the Aegean Sea. The Arzawa is undoubtedly a realm of Luvite culture, as evidenced by the names of people from this country and the fact that it worshiped the gods of Latvia, such as Arma (the Moon) and Tarhunda (god of the Thunderstorm). The first historical attestation of the kingdom of Arzawa dates from the reign of Hattushili, around 1650 BC.
The Ahhiyawa (ancient form Ahhiya) is a kingdom that appears primarily in the archives of the Hittite kingdom in the second half of The debate about its location, due to the fact that we can see a mention of the Achaeans, is still far from being closed, especially since in ancient times homonyms were frequent, the same name could designate several peoples and countries (for example, there are several |).
The Adena civilizations are pre-Columbian cultures that develop at (-1000 / -100), early in the woodland period in the woodlands of the eastern United States, Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, Kentucky and parts of Pennsylvania and New York State. Rich mounds adjoin artificial mounds.
The modest Adena villages punctuate the river valleys where there are plenty of small mammals, birds, fish and a wide variety of consumable plants. Horticulture begins to produce sunflowers, elderberry, squash, cucurbitaceae and chenopodium. Agricultural surpluses may explain the development of this culture, which is considered to be Mound Builders. They live in rectangular houses, built of solid material, which reveals their sedentary lifestyle.
The term civilization has been used in different ways throughout history. In the current sense, civilization is the set of traits that characterize the state of a given society, from the technical, intellectual, political and moral point of view, without making any value judgment. We can then speak of civilizations in the plural and even of “primitive civilizations”, in the chronological sense, without pejorative connotation. Like those of culture, religion and society, the word civilization has become a key concept or “master word” for thinking about the world and history in the Enlightenment. The first to have used the word civilization in the present sense is Victor Riqueti de Mirabeau, the father of Mirabeau the revolutionary. In 1756, in ” The Friend of Men or Treaty of the Population, he writes: Similarly, in 1795, in Sketch of a Chart of Progress of the Human Mind ” of Condorcet, the idea of civilization refers to the progress made by humanity in a given nation when it was possible to move from the state of barbarism to that of civilized. To civilization, then considered as an ideal to be attained and as a process of transformation of society towards this ideal, was the main legitimation given to imperialist colonization. It was a question of “civilizing” the peoples of the world in a hierarchical and evolutionist vision of civilization. Today the conceptions of civilization are more egalitarian so that the term refers more to a historical and social state of affairs than a process of transformation of societies. The idea has ceased to function in opposition to those of barbarism or savagery, while the principle of “the right of peoples to self-determination” is affirmed. In order to be able to define civilizations that have no precise structure nor institutional representation, it is necessary to select the facts that are considered appropriate. Thus, we rely on linguistic, ethical, geographical, cultural, religious or political facts. But the concepts of religion or culture are themselves discussed. For Bertrand Binoche,.