Universal civilization



The terms universal civilization and world civilization are linked to a perception of the effects of globalization. They refer to the global sharing of ways, values, practices, beliefs, and even directions.

Some consider that globalization makes us witness the emergence of what Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul called a “universal civilization”. Václav Havel writes: According to the defenders of this point of view, the changes that globalization brings lead us to think differently about issues related to culture or civilization. They argue that the development of information and knowledge technologies and technologies in general, trade development, migration or tourism, would be the basis of this world civilization. CS. Naipaul and Fouad Ajami are the most fervent defenders.

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Medieval translations of the Bible



The medieval translations of the French prose Bible, that is to say, Bibles written like the ones we read today and which resembled the Latin versions to the point of being taken for them, are few. Often, we preferred to adapt in verse because it offered a great freedom of improvisation or comment. The first “true” integral translations date from the end of. The translations of the Psalter into Germanic and Romance languages ​​are among the oldest known translations ().

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Theories on the risk of collapse of industrial civilization



” Theories on the risk of collapse of industrial civilization ” are theories about the risks of imminent decline in the contemporary industrial world that include the extinction of many living species, including mankind, and ‘part of a process of global collapse. These conceptions describe a systemic risk of planetary catastrophes caused directly by its mode of operation. These theories of collapse are not based on direct scientific evidence, but rely on measurable indices and documented studies. The apocalyptic warnings (or the end of the world) are part of an old tradition, but the originality of the current theories is that they are based on scientific facts whose reality is recognized by scientific and institutional reports and expertise, such as those of the Club of Rome, the IPCC, international military authorities, the World Bank and the Davos Forum. In addition, the risks put forward are now based on human activity.

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Hittite military oath



The Hittite Military Oath (CTH 427) is a Hittite text inscribed on two cuneiform tablets. The first tablet was preserved only as fragments (KBo XXI 10, KUB XL 13, and other minor fragments), the second tablet was copied in triplicate, and was able to be restored almost completely. The oldest copy (KUB XL 13) is fragmentary, but two more recent copies (KUB XL 16, KBo VI, 34) are well preserved. The text is in Old-Hittite, and contains some transcription errors committed by later scribes, and represents the oath pronounced by the military leaders. More precisely, he describes a series of symbolic acts whose purpose is to represent the afflictions that were to fall on those who take the oath, if they failed in their word.

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Rice civilization



It is called rice civilization all territories and populations of which rice is (or rather was) the main crop and the main food. It covers mainly the Asian continent and opposes as such the civilization of wheat (Europe and the Middle East) and corn (America). This concept, coined by the French historian Fernand Braudel, is mainly applied to the history of the world from Antiquity to. By the end of, the first globalization blurs the tracks and makes this description obsolete. Rice is the civilization plant of the Asian continent. Braudel tells us that it is a “dominant, tyrannical” plant. Rice and wheat come from the same geographical area: Central Asia. The West chose wheat while the Orient opted for rice. The main advantage of rice on wheat is to be able to produce two or even three harvests a year. These yields, however, require a very strict agricultural calendar and permanent efforts, which is not the case for wheat.

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Eastern Party in Greece



The Eastern Party in Greece reflects the concept of the Eastern Party, in the countries of the Third World, in opposition to that of the Western Party, a concept used by both the peoples concerned and the social sciences, for more than a century to define the opposition of the majority of the population to the attempts of their westernization. Since the West sees Greece as its mother, many refuse to accept that it can be part of the non-West and persist in believing that the eastern party in this country is a marginal phenomenon. But, according to Dimitri Kitsikis, “the Eastern Party has always been the best advocate of the Greek tradition which is inseparable from Orthodoxy. Hellenism is not only a nation, it is a civilization that once radiated the entire surface of the Intermediate Region. ”

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History of the Western world



The term “western world” can be confusing because it covers different realities according to the times and according to political, cultural, ideological, religious or philosophical considerations. It is therefore interesting to study it in a historical perspective. The Western world or, more simply, the West means, in a classical vision, a cultural area inheriting from ancient Greece (thought, science) and ancient Rome (right) and later imbued with Judeo-Christian Catholic and Protestant culture. In this sense, the roots of the West go back to ancient times. It finds its origin in the establishment of colonies by the cities of Ancient Greece which diffused little by little their civilization on all the Mediterranean rim. It was under this influence that the city of Rome gradually developed to the point of forming a vast empire. In 296, Diocletian administratively divided the Roman Empire into two parts: the East and the West, establishing a first boundary between what will long be the Eastern world and the Western world. After a period of relative decline during the Middle Ages, the West developed more strongly than the rest of the world with the Renaissance and then with the Enlightenment in freeing itself from the influence of the Church, before reaching its culminating with the Industrial Revolution of, the European colonization of the world and finally with the political revolutions of the, which established secularism and parliamentary democracy.

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West



The West, or Western world, is a geopolitical concept that is generally based on the idea of ​​a common civilization, heir to the Greco-Roman civilization from which modern Western society emerged. His current employment also implies a distancing with either the rest of the world or one or more other areas of influence of the world such as the Arab world, the Chinese world or the Russian sphere of influence. Originally this distanciation was expressed against the East and Constantinople. Indeed, the political notion of the West gradually emerged from 285 with the division of the Roman Empire, when the Roman Empire of the West, which uses the Latin alphabet forms around Rome, and that the Empire Eastern Roman who uses the Greek alphabet is constituted around Constantinople. The decline of the Western Roman Empire culminated in the end of Western political unity in 476, without undermining religious unity, leading to the expansion of the influence of the Roman Catholic Church to the Church. Northern Europe and Central Europe. The advance Omeyyade in Spain is stopped by the reestablishment of a western military unit under the command of Charles Martel, victorious in Poitiers in 732. It is in this context that Charlemagne takes the title of emperor of the West in the 800. In 1078, the Seljuk Turks prohibited Christian pilgrims from entering Jerusalem, leading in 1096 to the beginning of the Crusades during which Westerners launched armed expeditions into the “Holy Land”. The schism of 1054 had meanwhile marked a break in principle between Rome and Constantinople, the opposition then became religious. The fourth crusade, diverted by the Republic of Venice, concludes with a sack of Constantinople by the Crusaders. It weakens the Eastern Empire durably, but begins the Renaissance in the West. From there, the world knows two important upheavals: the Protestant Reformation which upsets Western Christianity and the capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans. The capture of Granada in 1492 marked at the same time the end of the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula. The European states abandon the Silk Road and begin to look for new routes to the Indies: this period named “Great Discoveries” leads to the gradual conquest of the “New World”. There will be a period of technological progress, the establishment of colonial counters, which will become colonial empires, the “Age of Enlightenment” and finally the industrial revolution. The Russian Empire is westernized from Peter the Great but the advent of the USSR will lead during the second half of the Cold War and a bipolar world dominated:

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Moche (culture)



The ugly culture (sometimes called mochica) is a pre-Incanic pre-Columbian culture that stretched along the Peruvian north coast, roughly between the year 100 and 700 AD. It was contemporary with the Nazca culture that occupied the south coast of Peru, being located chronologically between the Chavín era (ancient horizon) and the Chimú era. The brilliant culture of the mochicas is contemporary with the Maya of Mesoamerica and precedes the famous Inca empire for more than eight centuries.

At ap. BC, different cultures shared the northern coast of Peru, all heirs of the Chavín and Cupisnic cultures, the most remarkable being:

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Mississippi Civilization



The Mississippi civilization (or Mississippi culture) developed between, east of the Mississippi River, on the present territory of the United States. It can be attached to the culture of the Mound Builders, because it has produced large funeral mounds (tumulus). This civilization began to flourish in the Mississippi Valley, hence its name. It seems that it completely disappeared before the arrival of European settlers in North America.

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