Venus of Brizet

The Venus of Brizet (or Venus with turnips) is a marble statue discovered in a field of Saint-Just-sur-Loire (France, Department of the Loire) in 1937. Originally considered a work of art of Antiquity Roman, it was classified as object of the Historical Monuments in 1938 before one learns that it was actually a sculpture made in 1936 and buried the same year by an artist who had imagined this hoax to advertising purposes.

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Tiare of Saïtapharnès

The tiara of Saïtapharnès is a golden tiara. Acquired by the Louvre Museum in 1896, it later proved to be a forgery.

In April 1896, the Louvre reported that it had bought a tiara of gold discovered in Crimea and having belonged to the Scythian king Saïtapharnès. On the advice of Albert Kaempfen (1826-1907), then director of the National Museums, and archaeologists Antoine Héron de Villefosse and Solomon Reinach, the museum had acquired this invaluable piece for 200,000 gold francs. A Greek inscription on the tiara read: “The council and the citizens of Olbia honor the great and invincible King Saïtapharnès”. For the experts of the Louvre, this tiara confirmed an episode dating from the end of the early to the beginning of our era. At the request of its readers, the newspaper Le Figaro suggested to Solomon Reinach to tell in his columns the life of Saïtapharnès.

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Stones of Ica

The ” ‘Ica’ ” stones are a set of 15,000 pebbles of etesite engraved, appeared in Ica in Peru in the 1960s. The engravings represent fantastic animals, dinosaurs cohabiting with human beings, scenes evoking advanced technologies (surgical operations, heart transplants, telescopes, rockets, etc.). At first presented as authentic archaeological objects by their inventors, they finally prove to be a hoax.

Ica stones are made on andesite pebbles of various sizes. They are engraved superficially and carry various scenes and drawings, maps, missing animals such as dinosaurs or complex medical practices.

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Kensington Runestone

The Kensington Runestone is a rectangular grauwacke stone covered with runes on its face and side. Its origin and significance have been disputed since its “discovery” in 1898 at Solem Township (Douglas County) near Kensington, Minnesota. She suggests that Scandinavian explorers would have reached the middle of North America at. Scholars and historians consider James Knirk at to be the most important: “‘Fin finnes en liten klikk med amerikanere som sverger til at steinen er ekte. From the position of the skandinaviskættede realister uten peiling på språk, og from har store skarer med tilhengere. There is a small click of Americans who swear to the stone’s authenticity. They are mainly natural scientists of Scandinavian with no knowledge of linguistics, and they have large numbers of adherents. ” The runestone has been analyzed and dismissed repeatedly without local effect. See: E. Wahlgren, The Kensington Stone: A Mystery Solved (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press) 1958; T. Blegen, The Kensington Runestone: New Light on an Old Riddle (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society) 1968; R. Fridley, “The Case of the Gran tapes,” Minnesota History 45.4 (1976: 152-56); B. Wallace, “Some points of controversy”, in B. Ashe, ed. The Quest for America (New York: Praeger) 1971: 154-74; E. Wahlgren, The Vikings and America (New York: Thames & Hudson) 1986. that it is a hoax, but the question is still debated.

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Ossuary of Silwan

The ossuary of Silwan is a burial urn, containing bones, found in Israel in 2002. It bears an inscription in Aramaic which translates as “James son of Joseph, brother of Jesus” and would date from. Some conclude that these are the bones of James the Just, the own brother of Jesus of Nazareth, first leader of the early Church, but whose existence was later hidden. Since then, they have committed themselves:

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Piltdown Man

The Piltdown man, Eoanthropus dawsoni (“Dawson’s Dawn Man”) then Homo dawsoni or Homo piltdownensis, was considered early as a fossil dating from the Acheulean (Lower Paleolithic) and as a link missing between the monkey and the man because of its simian characters (lower jaw) and human (skull cap). In 1959, tests definitely showed that it was a paleontological hoax. This hoax is.

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Glozel is a locality of the town of Ferrieres-sur-Sichon, in the south-east of the department of Allier, located about thirty kilometers from Vichy, in the Bourbon mountains. It became famous from 1924, when was discovered a set of objects, attributed at first to a prehistoric time but whose antiquity and sometimes the authenticity were quickly disputed. The objects discovered are carved stones, pottery, bones, fragments of glass, and especially ceramic tablets bearing inscriptions evoking a writing in an alphabet often close to the Phoenician alphabet. These vestiges are at the origin of a strong controversy which divided a part of the scientific community, then the general public, into “Glozéliens” and “anti-Glozéliens”. The “Glozel affair” had many judicial episodes. After further analysis and dating, the Ministry of Culture released in 1995 a report that the site is primarily medieval, while containing many artifacts of the Iron Age. The report also concludes that the site has been overloaded, at an undetermined date, with some fakes whose author remains unknown.

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Cardiff Giant

The Cardiff giant is a hoax perpetrated in the United States. It was supposedly a petrified man, discovered and discovered on October 16, 1869 by workers digging a well behind the barn of William “Stub” Newell located in Cardiff, New York. The crowd came in numbers to contemplate the giant, each person having to pay and then, in view of the success of the operation, from the second day.

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False Etruscan warriors

The False Etruscan warriors are three terracotta statues similar to works of the ancient Etruscans, but which are in fact counterfeits. The statues, created by the Italian brothers Pio and Alfonso Riccardi and three of their six sons, were bought by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York between 1915 and 1921. The Riccardi brothers began their career as art counterfeiters when the Roman art dealer Domenico Fuschini hired them to make ceramic shards and a set of “old-fashioned” vases.

Their first important work is a large bronze tank. In 1908 Domenico Fuschini informed the British Museum that the chariot had been found in an old Etruscan fort near Orvieto, and that the Riccardi brothers had been solicited to clean it. They were commissioned to restore it by the British Museum, which bought it and added it to its collections in 1912. Pio Riccardi died shortly after the transaction.

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Gospel of the woman of Jesus

The Gospel of the Woman of Jesus is a text in Coptic written on a fragment of papyrus that includes the words: “Jesus said to them,” My wife … “”. This text has been presented as a Coptic translation of the. According to experts, this document is a forgery.

On September 18, 2012, Professor Karen Leigh King, invited to the International Conference on Coptic Studies in Rome, announces the existence of a 3.8 papyrus fragment with the phrase ” Jesus said to them, “My wife …” “. King and his colleague Anne-Marie Luijendijk call the fragment “Gospel of the Bride of Jesus” for reference purposes, but acknowledge that the name is controversial. King insists that the fragment,. The Vatican newspaper L’Osservatore Romano declares that the Gospel is one. A number of independent researchers confirm this judgment. However, Professor Alberto Camplani, of the University of Rome “La Sapienza”, who was commissioned to carry out the analysis on which the Vatican newspaper based his article, said in 2012 in a television documentary:.

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Crystal skull

A crystal skull is a representation of human skull in rock crystal. This type of object was very popular with pre-Columbian Mesoamerican antiquities lovers. Falsely considered at the time as representative of the Aztec and Mayan cultures, the most prestigious examples, most probably made in Germany, were the “skull of Paris” (now at the musée du quai Branly) and the “skull of London”. “(), Which have been the subject of many articles and whose loan has often been requested. From the beginning of, these objects attracted esoteric enthusiasts who lent them a supernatural origin, as well as powers of physical and spiritual healing. The most remarkable was that explorer F.A. Mitchell Hedges claimed to have discovered in the 1920s in Belize. Excavations have not confirmed the supposed place of the crystal skull in pre-Columbian cultures. In the 1990s, pieces of public collections were the subject of expertise whose results indicate that it would be late creations, probably from, or at least the colonial era for older. Since the scientific analyzes proving that they were cut to the, that of Paris is more exposed only exceptionally, as in 2008 on the occasion of the release of the film Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the skull of crystal or still in 2011 at the Laténium, for an exhibition entitled “The Age of Fake”. That of London is accompanied by a sign explaining that it was probably made in. Nevertheless, crystal skulls retain their power of fascination and the world still believes in their power.

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The Antiques Affair

‘L’affaire des antiquités’ (original title:’) is a science fiction comedy by Robert Silverberg. The theme, which was new at the time of the publication of the news, concerns archaeological fraud applied to the field of science fiction.

If only publications in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and France are taken into account, the news was published between 1956 and 2012, 13 times in Silverberg news collections or in anthologies gathering news from various authors.

The news is written in 1956 and appears under the title ‘in the magazine’.

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Archaeological fraud

An archaeological fraud is a scientific fraud related to archeology. It can consist of a production of false objects supposedly ancient, the fraudulent introduction of false or authentic objects in real archaeological levels, or even the creation of all parts of an archaeological site. There are also examples of paleontological frauds like the one related to the archaeoraptor.

Like artistic fakes, most archaeological frauds are motivated by greed. The monetary value of an object supposed to be several thousand years old is greater than that of the same object sold as a souvenir. It can happen that fake artefacts are made to be sold on the antique market, or even museums. However, the authors of archaeological or paleontological frauds may have other motivations. They can try to create evidence for a point of view or theory that they defend, or on the contrary against ideas they reject. If the goal is to create evidence in the religious field, then it is appropriate to speak of “”. They can also search for themselves a form of celebrity or prestige as inventors. So,

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