Canadian Center for Epigraphic Documents



The Canadian Center for Epigraphic Documents (CESC) was established in February 2010 as a non-profit organization to archive, catalog and digitize epigraphic documents. The center’s team is composed entirely of professional volunteers and graduate computer science students.

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Zhang Zhung



In historical sources and medieval Tibetan legends, Zhang Zhung, Shang Shoung or Shang Shung () is the name of a kingdom occupying the current Ngari Prefecture, west of the Tibet Autonomous Region, in the People’s Republic of China. China, which was militarily conquered by the Tibetan Empire (629 – 877) at, under the reign of Songtsen Gampo. It is called Yangtong () or Xiangxiong () in Chinese sources. The tradition of the Shamanic religion Bonpo claims that it is from here that came the Bon Yungdrung, precursor of Tibetan Buddhism after syncretism with Buddhism. In the long history of rivalry between the bonpo and Buddhist religions, the kingdom occupies the symbolic place of the “other Tibet”, opposed to the Tibetan empire. Due to geographical, cultural and political barriers, archaeological exploration of western Tibet began timidly less than twenty years ago. His promising discoveries have encouraged the Tibetan Academy of Social Sciences to join the research in recent years.

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Xituanshan



Xituanshan Culture (西 团 山) is a Bronze Age culture from Jilin Province in northeastern China. It extends into the Second Songhua Valley on the territory of present-day Changchun and Jilin Towns between the Weihuling Mountains and the Lalinhe, East Liaohe and Yitonghe Rivers. It was divided into three periods: the old phase (Western Zhou period, -1046 to -771), the middle phase (Spring and Autumn period, -771 to -481/453) and the late phase (Kingdom period fighters, -481/453 to -221). One of its features is the stone rockstone tombs that serve only one person. It is also remarkable for its three-foot vases of type ding and li that denote relations with the central plains of China. The villages are located near the rivers on low terraces. The houses are 25 to 40 m², are semi-buried and have a rectangular fireplace. Their walls are stone or covered with mud.

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xinglongwa culture



The Xinglongwa (興隆 洼 文化) culture, from 6200 to 5200 BC, is the first known Neolithic culture (in 2012) of northeastern China. It is found mainly on the current boundaries of Inner Mongolia and Liaoning provinces, in the Xiliao and Daling basins.

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Superior Xiajiadian culture



The culture of Upper Xiajiadian, in northeastern China, is an archeological culture of nomadic pastoralists at a time when North China was expanding in the Bronze Age. The site has several archaeological levels, including the lower level (2000-1500 BCE) and the upper level (1000-300 BCE), which derives from the bronze tradition of the Eurasian steppe and the Andronovo culture. The eponymous site is located in Chifeng Prefecture in Inner Mongolia. It is marked by the adoption of the horse which pushes this initially sedentary people towards nomadism.

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Lower Xiajiadian culture



The lower Xiajiadian culture is a Bronze Age archaeological culture in northeastern China dating from about 2000 to 1400 BCE. The eponymous site is located in Chifeng Prefecture in Inner Mongolia.

This culture succeeds Hongshan culture through Xiaoheyan’s transitional culture. After the cultivation of the lower Xiajiadian, from 1000, it gives way to the nomads of the culture of the upper Xiajiadian.

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Windmill Hill culture



The Windmillians are a people settled in England and Ireland around 3800 To 3300 they are at the origin of the Windmill-Hill civilization, building long tumuli (long-barrows), ceremonial paths (cursus) and ditch camps interrupted (“henges” with narrow ditches north of the Thames and “henges” with wide ditches to the south).

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Wielbark Culture



The Wielbark culture takes its name from a village where the Germans discovered in 1873 a cemetery of more than 3000 tombs, attributed to the Gothic and Gépides peoples. Unfortunately, many of the stones in this cemetery have been moved and several burials damaged. The report of the first excavations, lost during the Second World War, was only found in 2004, and is about to be analyzed by a team of Polish researchers from Danzig, Warsaw, Krakow and Lublin.

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Culture of Vinča



The culture of Vinča, also known as Turdaş culture or Turdaş-Vinča culture, is a European Neolithic culture located in the Balkans and dated from 5700 to 4500. It owes its name to the site of Vinča-Belo brdo or Vinča, located about twenty kilometers southeast of Belgrade, on the banks of the Danube in Serbia. This archeological culture, which succeeds the Starčevo culture, is considered an important milestone in the context of the typical European Neolithic cultures. It marks a period of demographic prosperity in the region, thanks to a more developed practice of agriculture. There are many well-organized villages, pottery, anthropomorphic or zoomorphic clay figurines, and artifacts with many signs that could form the oldest known proto-script. The Vinča culture is still Neolithic and is not considered part of the copper age proper, but the oldest known traces of copper metallurgy have been discovered in this culture. However, the tools are still mostly cut or polished stone or bone. More recently, the oldest bronze objects of the world have also been discovered.

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Culture of Villanova



Villanova or Villanovian culture is the term used by archaeologists to designate an Iron Age culture occupying the space on which the future Etruria will be formed, which is already clearly drawn at the beginning of the. These archaeologists named it after the name of a major archaeological site, Villanova di Castenaso, located in the Bologna region, discovered in 1853.

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