Canadian Center for Epigraphic Documents

The Canadian Center for Epigraphic Documents (CESC) was established in February 2010 as a non-profit organization to archive, catalog and digitize epigraphic documents. The center’s team is composed entirely of professional volunteers and graduate computer science students.

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Zhang Zhung

In historical sources and medieval Tibetan legends, Zhang Zhung, Shang Shoung or Shang Shung () is the name of a kingdom occupying the current Ngari Prefecture, west of the Tibet Autonomous Region, in the People’s Republic of China. China, which was militarily conquered by the Tibetan Empire (629 – 877) at, under the reign of Songtsen Gampo. It is called Yangtong () or Xiangxiong () in Chinese sources. The tradition of the Shamanic religion Bonpo claims that it is from here that came the Bon Yungdrung, precursor of Tibetan Buddhism after syncretism with Buddhism. In the long history of rivalry between the bonpo and Buddhist religions, the kingdom occupies the symbolic place of the “other Tibet”, opposed to the Tibetan empire. Due to geographical, cultural and political barriers, archaeological exploration of western Tibet began timidly less than twenty years ago. His promising discoveries have encouraged the Tibetan Academy of Social Sciences to join the research in recent years.

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Xituanshan Culture (西 团 山) is a Bronze Age culture from Jilin Province in northeastern China. It extends into the Second Songhua Valley on the territory of present-day Changchun and Jilin Towns between the Weihuling Mountains and the Lalinhe, East Liaohe and Yitonghe Rivers. It was divided into three periods: the old phase (Western Zhou period, -1046 to -771), the middle phase (Spring and Autumn period, -771 to -481/453) and the late phase (Kingdom period fighters, -481/453 to -221). One of its features is the stone rockstone tombs that serve only one person. It is also remarkable for its three-foot vases of type ding and li that denote relations with the central plains of China. The villages are located near the rivers on low terraces. The houses are 25 to 40 m², are semi-buried and have a rectangular fireplace. Their walls are stone or covered with mud.

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Superior Xiajiadian culture

The culture of Upper Xiajiadian, in northeastern China, is an archeological culture of nomadic pastoralists at a time when North China was expanding in the Bronze Age. The site has several archaeological levels, including the lower level (2000-1500 BCE) and the upper level (1000-300 BCE), which derives from the bronze tradition of the Eurasian steppe and the Andronovo culture. The eponymous site is located in Chifeng Prefecture in Inner Mongolia. It is marked by the adoption of the horse which pushes this initially sedentary people towards nomadism.

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Lower Xiajiadian culture

The lower Xiajiadian culture is a Bronze Age archaeological culture in northeastern China dating from about 2000 to 1400 BCE. The eponymous site is located in Chifeng Prefecture in Inner Mongolia.

This culture succeeds Hongshan culture through Xiaoheyan’s transitional culture. After the cultivation of the lower Xiajiadian, from 1000, it gives way to the nomads of the culture of the upper Xiajiadian.

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Windmill Hill culture

The Windmillians are a people settled in England and Ireland around 3800 To 3300 they are at the origin of the Windmill-Hill civilization, building long tumuli (long-barrows), ceremonial paths (cursus) and ditch camps interrupted (“henges” with narrow ditches north of the Thames and “henges” with wide ditches to the south).

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Wielbark Culture

The Wielbark culture takes its name from a village where the Germans discovered in 1873 a cemetery of more than 3000 tombs, attributed to the Gothic and Gépides peoples. Unfortunately, many of the stones in this cemetery have been moved and several burials damaged. The report of the first excavations, lost during the Second World War, was only found in 2004, and is about to be analyzed by a team of Polish researchers from Danzig, Warsaw, Krakow and Lublin.

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Culture of Vinča

The culture of Vinča, also known as Turdaş culture or Turdaş-Vinča culture, is a European Neolithic culture located in the Balkans and dated from 5700 to 4500. It owes its name to the site of Vinča-Belo brdo or Vinča, located about twenty kilometers southeast of Belgrade, on the banks of the Danube in Serbia. This archeological culture, which succeeds the Starčevo culture, is considered an important milestone in the context of the typical European Neolithic cultures. It marks a period of demographic prosperity in the region, thanks to a more developed practice of agriculture. There are many well-organized villages, pottery, anthropomorphic or zoomorphic clay figurines, and artifacts with many signs that could form the oldest known proto-script. The Vinča culture is still Neolithic and is not considered part of the copper age proper, but the oldest known traces of copper metallurgy have been discovered in this culture. However, the tools are still mostly cut or polished stone or bone. More recently, the oldest bronze objects of the world have also been discovered.

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Culture of Villanova

Villanova or Villanovian culture is the term used by archaeologists to designate an Iron Age culture occupying the space on which the future Etruria will be formed, which is already clearly drawn at the beginning of the. These archaeologists named it after the name of a major archaeological site, Villanova di Castenaso, located in the Bologna region, discovered in 1853.

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Culture of Veloucha-Porodin

The Velucha-Porodin culture is a prehistoric culture that existed on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia in the Neolithic. It is a peripheral culture of the Balkan-Anatolian ensemble that has evolved in a particular way. It appeared in Pelagonia, an isolated plain in the south-west of the country and is named after two sites, Velusha (Macedonian Velusha) and Porodin (Porodin), located on the banks of the Tsrna River. the culture appears towards 5500 BC. J.-C and known four phases (Veloucha-Porodin I-IV). The houses of the culture have a rectangular plan or more rarely trapezoidal, walls in wattling and a ground covered with agile. Few stone tools have been found because they are mostly made of bone, and the sepulchral rites are very little known. The pottery is most often spherical with an elongated collar, red color and decorated with triangle patterns of white paint. We also found terracotta altars and very special statuettes, the magna mater, small figures of houses with a woman’s body in place of the fireplace. Finally, culture is characterized by the production of many figurines with elongated necks, sometimes sitting. Phase I is characterized by connective footware and “3” ornaments, which are also found during Phase II. Bands and ovals are particular phases III and IV. Phase IV is distinguished by clay patterns added to the walls. Magna mater were mainly produced during Phase III.

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The Vasconian is a facies of the final Mousterian characterized by the presence of choppers. It was defined by François Bordes from industries in southwestern France and northern Spain.

The Vasconian was defined by F. Bordes in 1953: We forge this new term for a very special facies of the Mousterian, the one that is found in Basque Country at the shelter Olha (lower layer) and Castillo (alpha layer, upper) . It is characterized by the presence of choppers on chips, or shards Olha, form frequent in Africa, but that we do not know in France north of Sauveterre-la-Lémance. According to F. Bordes, this facies has characteristics close to a Charentien type Quina, with a low scraper index, denticulates relatively numerous, a Levallois debitage use and especially the presence of choppers: It is as if an industry of Castillo-beta type had received a transient infusion of Levallois technique and African typology. The presence of choppers in the Mousterian Basque Country and the Cantabrian Mountains therefore has a cultural significance for F. Bordes and reflects contacts with North Africa. The presence of Vasconian has been proposed for sites in Cantabria such as Cueva Morin, Castillo (dates of – 43.3 ± 2.9 ka and – 39.3 ± 1.5 ka by C14 SMA), the Pendo and Pyrénées-Atlantiques such as Isturitz and the Olha shelter.

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Valorguien is a cultural facies of the Epipaleolithic. Formerly known as Provençal Romanell, it is homologous to the Azilian (curved backed slats) but differs in particular by the absence of harpoon. It was defined by Max Escalon de Fonton from the Valorgues shelter industry, located in the town of Saint-Quentin-la-Poterie. It covers the coast of eastern Languedoc (eponymous site) and western Provence (in the Bouches-du-Rhône, sites of Saint-Marcel in the municipality of Marseille, shelter Cornille and shelter Capeau on the town d’Istres, the Arnoux shelter in the municipality of Saint-Chamas and Marcouline in the town of Cassis) and the Lower Rhone (site of the Granges des Merveilles II in the town of Rochefort-du-Gard in the Gard ). The Valorguian is dated for millennia and is located in the climatic phase of Bölling-Alleröd. It then gives way to the cultural facies of Montadien. Continue reading “Valorguien”


Utina (also known as Agua Dulce) is the name of a Native American chieftain living in North Florida and present-day Georgia. This tribe is closely related to that of the Acueras living further inland and that of the Utinahicas.

The Utinas formed a linguistic tribe Mocama and the Timucua Nation. The Utinas were in conflict with the neighboring tribes Saturiwas and Tacatacurus, both from the same Mocama language family. The Utinas lived on the banks of the Saint Johns River and present-day Palatka and up to George Lake in the Ocala area.

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Urewe is the name of the site in Kenya whose publication of archaeological material by Mary Leakey in 1948 has made this culture known. It refers to the Early Iron Age phase in the Great Lakes region of East Central Africa, around Lake Victoria.

This culture appears in the region at the passage of the II to the millenium and it seems to have remained in some places far into the millennium Its widest expansion, linked to an important metallurgical activity of the iron, is in the first six centuries, since the region from Kivu (Democratic Republic of Congo) in the west to Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, northwestern Tanzania, and southwestern Kenya.

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Culture of Unétice

The ” Unetice Culture ” is a group from the Early Bronze Age of Central Europe (circa 2300 BC – circa 1600 BC).

The Bronze Age appears in Central Europe with Unétice culture, sometimes incorrectly called Unétice civilization, around 2300 BC. J. – C. – 1600 av. The eponymous city of Únětice is located northwest of Prague in Bohemia (Czech Republic). In Bohemia, the culture of Unétice follows the campaniforme culture and precedes the cultivation of tumuli (Middle Bronze Age). Although posterior to the campaniform culture, the culture of Unétice does not derive from it. According to the chronology of the ancient Bronze established by Paul Reinecke, there are two periods:

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Culture of Tsaroubintsy

The Tsarubintsy or Zarubinets culture flourished from north to north of the Black Sea, from the upper and middle Dnieper Valley and the Pripiat Valley to the south of the Bug Valley to the west. The archaeological sites of Tsaroubintsy are particularly numerous between the valleys of the Desna and the Ros, as well as on the edge of the Pripyat. They were described in 1899 by the Czech-Ukrainian archaeologist V. V. Chvojka, and this culture, now attested by 500 excavation sites, takes its name from a village on the banks of the Dnieper where funeral urns were exhumed. The Tsarubintsy culture is generally associated with the Proto-Slavs.

The culture of Tsarubintsy was composite, influenced at the same time by the German-Celtic settlers of the La Tene civilization (Bastarnae and Skires in particular) and nomads of the steppes (Scythians and Sarmatians). The influence of the steppe peoples is particularly evident in the field of ceramics, armaments, household utensils and personal effects. In, this culture was swept away by the Goths and supplanted by the culture of Chernyakov.

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Tsaparang is the capital of the ancient kingdom of Guge which extended in the valley of Garuda, where the high Sutlej flows. It is located in Zanda Xian, Ngari Prefecture, in the western part of Tibet Autonomous Region, China. It is east of Ali (Shiquanhe) and west of Tholing Monastery and close to Mount Kailash, Lake Manasarovar and the Ladakh border. It is not far from the monastery of Gurugem (Bön).

Tsaparang is a vast fortress perched on a pyramid-shaped rock from a height of 150 to 200 m in front of a long and narrow spur. It includes many tunnels and caves that have been carved into the rock. At its base was a small town. Above were two public temples – the Lhakhang Marpo (“the red chapel”) and the Lhakhang Karpo (“the white chapel”) – and the monastic quarters. Higher up, at the end of a staircase dug in a tunnel, were the royal quarters, and at the very top, the summer palace.

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Tianshanbeilu (this site being located on one of the Silk Roads) is a site (circa 2000-1550 BCE) of the Bronze Age beginnings in the East of what is now the Autonomous Region Uyghur of Xinjiang. Its role has been essential as a place of passage and exchange between the cultures of the West, South Siberia and Central Asia, with populations living further east like those of the Hexi and Gansu Corridors, which were in contact with the Chinese cultures of the central plain of northern China today, Siba and Qijia among others, and with the populations of North and Northeast: culture of Zhukaigou on the Ordos plateau in Inner Mongolia and lower Xiajiadian culture.

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Thule culture

The members of the Thule culture are the ancestors of all current Canadian Inuit. They arrived in Alaska around the year 500, then in Nunavut around the year one thousand and one group then emigrated to Greenland. The links between Thule culture and the Inuit are biological, cultural and linguistic. They owe their name to the locality of Thule, north-west Greenland, now moved to Qaanaaq, where archaeological remains were found for the first time, locality itself named by the Danes in reference to the semi island – Thule legendary mentioned by the Greek explorer Pytheas in the far north of the known world. Apart from possible contacts with the Vikings, they were in contact with the peoples of Eurasia (we found and objects of metals from Asia, such as a belt can be used for horses, in a village of Cape Espenberg of the Seward Peninsula, present-day Alaska)). They then came into closer contact with the Europeans at.

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Terramare, Terramara or Terremare is a term for a complex technology dating back to the Middle and Late Bronze Age (1700-1150 BC), mainly established in the Po Valley in Emilia, Italy. North . It takes its name from the residue of mounds “black earth” of the colony. Terramare is terra marna, “Marne-terre”, where marls are a lacustrine deposit. It can be of any color, but in farmland it is more generally black. The population of the terramare sites is called “terramaricoli”. The sites were searched exhaustively between 1860-1910.

The Terramares were incineration peoples (several fields of funerary urns were found) of the Bronze Age.

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Culture of Chernyakhov

The culture of Chernyakhov is a pre-Slavic culture that developed from Belarus to Moldova through Ukraine. The eponymous site is the village of Chernyakhov in Kiev Oblast in Ukraine, excavated in the early years of the. Around the year 300, this civilization spread to Romania where it is found as the Sânta-Ana culture of Mureş. Its existence is attested by a thousand archaeological sites.

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The Tardenoisien (sometimes called Beuronien) designates mesolithic industries with numerous microliths in the shape of trapezium. Its name is linked to the Tardenois region and was discovered in 1885 by Émile Taté in Coincy in Aisne. It is best known in the center and north of the Paris Basin but similar crops are also known in Central and Eastern Europe (complex or late north-west Pontic), as well as in southern Great Britain (Horsham points) then connected to the mainland by the Doggerland. It occupies all the Mesolithic until the beginning of the Neolithic period, between -5500 (certain continental regions) and -4500 (British Isles), variable according to the region. The recent Sauveterrian with trapezius of South-West France, which succeeds the classic Sauveterrien, was formerly described as tardenoisien or tardenoid. This microlithic industry known in the deposits of Martinet and Cuzoul de Gramat could correspond to the beginnings of the Neolithic.


The Tacatacuru tribe is a chieftaincy of the Timucua Nation settled on Cumberland Island and part of the coast of Georgia. The Tacatacuru were the Amerindian allies of the French during the founding of the French Florida colony in.

The tribe Tacatacuru composes with the tribe Saturiwa the linguistic group of Mocama which is a linguistic subgroup Timucua. These two tribes, allied with the French were in conflict with the Utina tribe allied with the Spaniards, itself a member of the same linguistic group of the Mocama. The Tacatacurus were distributed in small communities from Cumberland Island and the Georgian coast to the northern limit of the Saint Marys River to the south. In 1562, French explorers who discovered them settled at the mouth of the Seine River (Saint Marys), the Tacatacurus lived in small communities spread along the Atlantic coast.

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Culture of Srubna

The Srubna culture, also referred to as the Russian (and, Ukrainian:), Soubrnaya culture and Srubnik culture cultivation is a Middle Bronze Age culture and attested to ( even between). This culture succeeds the Yamna culture and the Poltavka culture. It occupied the northern region along the northern shore of the Black Sea from the east of the Dnieper all the way to the foot of the Caucasus, a region adjoining the northern shore of the Caspian Sea to the west of the Ural Mountains meeting the area. more or less contemporary of the Andronovo culture which is somewhat connected to it. The name comes from Russian (srub), “structure of wood”, which is the way the tombs were built. Parts of animals were buried with the body.

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Culture of Sintashta

The culture of Sintashta, also known as the Sintashta-Petrovka culture or the Sintashta-Arkaïm culture, is a Bronze Age archeological culture from the northern Eurasian steppe on the southern slopes of the Urals in Russia, dated from the period 2100-1800 BCE The oldest light-weight battle tanks (with two spoked wheels) were found in the tombs of Sintashta, and the culture is considered a serious candidate for the origin of this technology, which extended through the old world and played an important role in the ancient war. The Sintashta settlements are also notable for the intensity of copper mining and bronze metallurgy that is carried out, which is unusual for a steppe culture. Due to the difficulty of identifying the remains of existing Sintashta sites under the remnants of later crops that were established on the same sites, the crop was only recently distinguished from the Andronovo crop. It is now recognized as a separate entity forming part of the “Andronovo Horizon”.

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Culture Seine-Oise-Marne

The Seine-Oise-Marne culture, also known as S.O.M. (or SOM), is a prehistoric culture that developed in the Neolithic and early Chalcolithic, mainly in the Paris Basin.

The Seine-Oise-Marne culture has been named because of the numerous archaeological discoveries made in the Paris Basin (the Seine, Oise and Marne basins). but this crop has spread far beyond, throughout northwestern France and southern Belgium. This culture is the. Indeed, the elements that appear in the north of France in the middle of the do not present anywhere else in association, and seem to testify to a genesis on the spot. The associated chronology is very variable according to the authors especially as it was able to persist locally up to the average bronze, especially in Belgium. ” Persistence of the Seine-Oise-Marne civilization in the Bronze Age in certain regions of France. Belgium ”, excerpt from the article:. The Seine-Oise-Marne culture is contemporary with the culture of corded ceramics stretching from the East of France to Russia, with which it shares enough common cultural elements so that we can consider the first as a subset of the second.

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The Sauveterrian term refers to hypermicrolithic mesolithic industries (with very small microliths, or mesolithic arrowheads). It was created in 1928 by Laurent Coulonges to name the industries discovered between the Azilien and the Tardenoisien in the shelter of Martinet, in Sauveterre-la-Lémance (Lot-et-Garonne). It is generally between 9000 and 6500 BP.There are several variants of the Sauveterrien, interpreted differently according to the authors: Sauveterrian trapezoids, Sauveterrien des Causses, Montclusien … For J.-G. Rozoy, these facies have a cultural significance and correspond to contemporary groups, occupying distinct geographical areas. Mr. Barbaza and N. Valdeyron proposed a “reunited model” contradicting the “Rozoy model”. For these authors, the different Sauveterrian variants correspond to the same cultural current covering the whole South-West of France. The Montclusien would be an evolutionary stage of Sauveterrien preceding the recent Sauveterrian trapezium.

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The Saturiwa tribe (also called Saturioua, Satourioua or Saturiba) is a Timucua Nation chiefdom located on the banks of the Saint Johns River in Florida. The Saturiwa were the Amerindian allies of the French during the founding of the French Florida colony in.

The Saturiwa tribe composes with the Tacatacuru tribe the Mocama linguistic group which is a Timucua linguistic subgroup. These two tribes, allied with the French were in conflict with the Utina tribe allied with the Spaniards, itself a member of the same linguistic group of the Mocama. The Saturiwas were divided into small communities from the Saint Marys River in the north to Saint Augustine in the south. According to the French explorers who discovered them in 1562, the Saturiwas lived in about thirty villages spread along the Atlantic coast.

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Culture of Saqqaq

The culture of Saqqaq (or Saqqaquien, or culture of Sarqaq) is a prehistoric culture of Greenland. It developed over the period between 2500 and With that of Independence I (2400 -), Saqqaquien is one of the two oldest known archaeological cultures in Greenland. It owes its name to the establishment of Saqqaq (or), in the northern part of Disko Bay, place of many discoveries and archaeological excavations. The Saqqaq culture, part of the so-called ensemble, was introduced and defined in the 1950s by Danish archaeologist Jørgen Meldgaard.

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The Sanxingdui culture () dates back to the period from 2800 to 800 BC. The Sanxingdui archaeological site is located in Guanghan City, about Chengdu in Sichuan Province, China. The objects found on the spot astonished the archaeologists because their style was completely different from the Chinese art of the same period. Sanxingdui’s artifacts date from the Bronze Age and demonstrate a technique of working and casting of advanced bronze for the time. This civilization seems to have lasted about 2000 years and disappeared suddenly for reasons still unknown. To date more than 10,000 objects in bronze, gold, jade, bone, or ivory have been found. The Sanxingdui culture seems to be contemporary to the Shang Dynasty, which developed a completely different technique of making bronze. Strangely, this culture was never directly mentioned by Chinese historians, nor does there exist any writings that clarify its nature.

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The Sadlermiuts, Sallirmiuts or Sagdlirmiuts were an Inuit group that inhabited the Southampton Islands (Salliq Island in Inuktitut, hence the name Sallirmiuts), Coats and Walrus located in Hudson Bay in Canada. The main settlement is Coral Harbor, which is named Salliq in modern Inuktitut and was formerly called Sadlerk, hence the name Sadlermiuts. They are often considered to be the last remaining representatives of Dorset culture as they have maintained a distinct Inuit culture and dialect of the continent. However, in fact, their culture and traditions seem to be more of a combination of elements from the Dorset and Thule cultures.

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Culture of Przeworsk

The Przeworsk culture is a proto-historical archeological culture of the Iron Age located mainly in the center and south of present-day Poland and extending from to. It takes its name from the city of Przeworsk in the region from which the first artefacts of this culture were recognized. Among the Germanic archaeological cultures the Przeworsk culture is notable for its great coherence, the size of the space occupied and the duration during which it is attested.

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Prenuragic culture

The preneuragic culture is a period in the history of Sardinia that precedes, as its name suggests, the nuragic age, which is characteristic of the island. It is composed of several civilizations that will, over the ages, allow the establishment of Nuragic culture.

During this period (-6000 to -4000), the man lives in caves (cave of Santo Stephano in the archipelago of the Maddalena, or the green cave of Alghero for example), and practice mainly the picking and the hunting but also agriculture. Through the remains of this period, and particularly the ceramic objects decorated with a cardium shell, it was possible to determine the presence of exchange with other peoples of the western Mediterranean, which has allowed, in addition to trade, cultural and religious exchanges. From then on, Filiestru’s men use caves as graves. The trade revolves around the obsidian of Monte Arci which is supplied in the countries of the Mediterranean basin. At this time, men already consume the fruits of Pistachio lentiscus.

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Ceramic of the Jomon period

The is a type of ceramic made during the Jōmon period (approximately from 13000 until 300 BCE) in the history of Japan. The term “Jōmon” (縄 文) characterizes this period with a typical ceramics print, or string decoration, which was discovered in 1877 by the American archaeologist Edward Sylvester Morse. Since this first discovery, the specific features of the period have been established, the chronology specified by numerous excavations scattered throughout the territory and with the commitment of the population. Over this very long period a multitude of forms and decorative processes have been produced in the islands of Japan, with differences often very important, or less between North and South.

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The Potanos are an Amerindian tribe who lived in north-central Florida at the time of the arrival of Europeans at. The Potanos Territory extended over Alachua County, Marion County and western Putnam County upstream of the Saint Johns River.

The Potanos were part of the Mocamas language group and were members of the Timucua Nation. Their dialect is part of the Timucua language family.

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Polada culture

The Polada culture developed in the early Bronze Age during the end of and around the beginning of (around 2200-1600 BC) throughout Northern Italy, especially in Lombardy, Veneto and Trentin.

The Polada culture has some similarities with the campaniform culture like the use of the bow and the control of the metallurgy. Apart from this, the Polada culture does not correspond to the campaniform culture nor to Remedello’s previous cultures. According to Barfield, the appearance of the Polada facies is related to the movement of new populations from southern Germany and Switzerland. Many similarities are also found in the initial phase of the Bonnanaro culture which spreads in Sardinia at the same time. Poladian influences are also found in the early Bronze Age cultures of Liguria, Romagna, Corsica and the South of France. In an archeological site near Solferino was found the oldest known horse to date in Italy from the Polada culture.

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Culture of the bronze dagger

The bronze dagger culture in Liaoning and Korea is an archeological complex from the late Bronze Age in the space that covers the present-day Manchuria and Korea, from about 800 BCE to 200 AD. Many bronze objects such as jewelery, musical instruments and mirrors or weapons characterize this culture, but swords, short swords, daggers (about 30 cm long, without handle but with a part, to the base, which allows to fix a handle) and daggers are the most characteristic. The current state of archaeological discoveries makes it possible to distinguish the two regions because of their specific characteristics.

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Period of archaic dynasties

The period of archaic dynasties (abbreviated DA) is a phase of the history of Mesopotamia, sometimes also called “archaic dynastic”, “proto-dynastic” or “pre-argonic”. It lasts about 2900 BC BC, until around 2340, date of the unification of the region by Sargon of Akkad. Succeeding the Uruk period, which saw the formation of the first states, the first cities, and the invention of writing, this epoch is characterized by the existence of states that are still underdeveloped and small, designated as ” city-states “. Their structures are consolidated over time, until the end of the period that is marked by the constitution of the Akkad Empire. From a cultural point of view, these different political entities are relatively homogeneous, participating in a brilliant civilization that radiates over a large part of the Middle East. The cities of the land of Sumer (Uruk, Ur, Lagash, Umma, Nippur, etc.), situated at the extreme south of Mesopotamia, are the most influential; they are bordered on the north by kingdoms of Semitic settlement covering a large part of Mesopotamia and Syria (Kish, Mari, Nagar, Ebla, etc.). Priority has long been given to studies on southern and central Mesopotamia, regions known since the end of the century by texts and art through the excavations of several sites (first Girsu, but also Tell Asmar, Khafadje, Ur, etc.). Then the analysis of this period has gradually expanded to neighboring regions, including Southwest Iran, Upper Mesopotamia and especially Syria, increasingly well known for thirty years thanks to the archives of Ebla. This makes it possible to take into account the developments that are also taking place there and that tend to relativize the traditional vision centered on Mesopotamia. The latter is not a region isolated by its complex political and social structures or its writing system, because other neighboring regions share common features with it and participate in material and immaterial exchange circuits covering all the Middle East.

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Erligang period

The Erligang period (or Erligang culture), circa 1580 – 1400/1300 before the common era, is a phase of China’s Protohistory, which follows the culture of Erlitou (v 1900-1500) in Henan. Some archaeologists consider it one of the first “civilizations”, if not the first, in China. It may be a period of “statehood” in the Yellow River Valley and much further south. And its radiation corresponds to the intense development of bronze metallurgy, characteristic of ancient China. It owes its name to the site Erligang, cleared from 1951 in a suburb – Erligang – Zhengzhou City, Henan, where were identified the first traces of this culture. Then many sites were cleared, dating from the following period, or middle phase of Erligang, in an area extended to much of the Central Plain of China, and into the Middle Yangzi Valley. And the major site of this period has been cleared under the current city of Zhengzhou, so close to the eponymous site of the period: it was for the time a huge city and fortified. The decline of Erligang manifests itself rapidly during the final phase, around 1300 BCE.

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Civilization of oppida

The civilization of oppida is a Celtic civilization that existed between them, either on the eve of the Gallic Wars. The term was coined by the French archaeologist Joseph Déchelette, to define the cultural unity of the Celtic peoples on the European continent, on a territory going from the south of England to the central Europe. Category: Celtic world oppida

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Nok (culture)

Nok’s culture appears in northern Nigeria towards undefined undefined and suddenly disappears, for unknown reasons, in the vicinity of It is thought that it is the heir to an ancestral nation that would have branched out to give birth to the Hausa peoples , Gbagyi, Birom, Kanouri, Nupe and Jukun. The Kwatarkwashi culture or Sokoto culture, located northwest of Nok, is supposed to be identical or to be the ancestor of the Nok culture. The social system of Nok’s culture seems to have been highly advanced. She is considered the oldest producer of terracotta sculptures close to the actual size. There are sculptures representing horsemen on horseback, which indicates that the Nok culture knew this animal, perhaps from North Africa. The work of iron, cast iron and forging, appears in the Nok culture to undefined undefined undefined, but it is possible that it is even older. suggested that iron smelting has been practiced in the region as early as before undefined undefined undefined

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The Natufian is the name given to a culture of the final Epipaleolithic, attested in the Levant between 12500 and 10000 BC. J.-C. and characterized by the first sedentary experiences.

The Natufian is a Middle Eastern culture whose sites have been discovered in the regions bordering the Mediterranean coast of Asia (especially near Mount Carmel and in the Negev). More precisely in the region extending south of the Taurus to Sinai. The eponymous site is Ouadi en Natouf in the West Bank. The first testimonies of the Natufian culture were discovered there by the British archaeologist Dorothy Garrod, in 1928.

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Period of Mumun ceramics

The period of the Mumun ceramics, (the ceramic without decoration) is a period of prehistory in Korea ranging approximately from 1500 to 300 BCE (AEC). It is often referred to as the Korean Bronze Age as bronze production begins between the AEC and the AEC. It is partly contemporary with the “Bronze Dagger Culture” (between the AEC and the EC), which ends with the Iron Age in Korea and the kingdom of Gojoseon. This civilization is marked by a strong development of agriculture, particularly the cultivation of irrigated rice which is practiced intensely from the classical Mumun, and a hierarchical society reported by the construction of many dolmens. It takes its name from the lack of decoration in its pottery and follows the period of ceramic Chulmun, much more decorated. vignette | 300px | Mumun sites in South Korea

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The Montadian is a cultural facies of the Mesolithic Provencal. It was defined in 1954 by the prehistorian Max Escalon de Fonton. It is illustrated by several sites in the Bouches-du-Rhône as those of the cave of the Montade (eponymous site in the town of Plan-de-Cuques), shelter Cornille (commune of Istres) where he succeeds to Valorguien, Long Balsam in Ponteau (municipality of Martigues), Mourre-Poussiou (commune of Fos-sur-Mer) and the shelter of the oxen (commune of Ventabren). The Montadian is to be placed mainly in the X millennium and is located in the climatic phases of Dryas III and Preboreal. He succeeds Valorguien.

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The Mocama people are a group of Native Americans who lived in North Florida and Georgia from 2500 BC until the arrival of the first Europeans.

The Mocamas formed a dialect group within the Timucua linguistic family. The Mocama people were made up of different chieftaincies and lived in many villages. Among the main Mocamas communities were the Saturiwas, Tacatacurus, Utinas and Potanos. The Mocamas lived on the banks of the Saint Johns River, on the present city of Palatka and as far as George Lake in the Ocala region. Their territory covered northern Florida and part of Georgia.

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Middle Stone Age

The English term “Middle Stone Age”, frequently abbreviated to MSA, refers to the great stage of African Prehistory that succeeds Early Stone Age and precedes Later Stone Age. It corresponds roughly to the Middle European Paleolithic even if it begins with industries attributed to the final Acheulean (about – 200 000 BP years) and if it ends with African equivalents of the Upper Paleolithic European (about – 30 000 years BP). The Blombos and Diepkloof sites in South Africa have yielded important sequences rich in MSA industries, represented in particular by the Stillbay facies in the first, the Stillbay facies and Howiesons Poort in the second.

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Mehrgarh was a former settlement site in South Asia and one of the most important archeology sites for the study of early Neolithic settlements in the region. The site is located in Pakistan’s Balochistan in the Kachi Plain near Bolan Pass, west of the Indus Valley and between the present-day cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi. Mehrgarh is sometimes considered the first site where agriculture in South Asia appeared, based on archaeological excavations carried out between 1974 and 1985 by the French archaeologist Jean-François Jarrige and his team. This is also where we find the oldest pottery of South Asia.

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mayaca people

The Mayacas were a Native American people living in central Florida upon the arrival of Europeans. They are part of the Ais language family and the Muskoge language group. According to the travel stories of the conquistador Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda written in 1575, the Mayacas were hunter-gatherers, unlike their Timucuas neighbors, whose Potanos and Saturiwas tribes practiced agriculture. The Mayacas consisted of several villages and groups, the two main ones being the Jororo or Hororo and the Surruques. The Mayacas participated with the neighboring tribes, the tradition of pottery making. Their territory extended from the Saint Johns River to Lake George and the Kissimmee River to the south. The Mayacas, especially those who lived in villages near the coast, came into contact with the French explorers around 1562. The relations of good neighborhoods between the French and the various Native American tribes (Saturiwas and Tacatacurus) allowed the French to establish their forts (Charlesfort and Fort Caroline) in French Florida.

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Maïkop culture

The culture of Maykop is a Bronze Age archeological culture whose area is in Ciscaucasia from the Taman Peninsula to the foothills of the Greater Caucasus and the Black Sea coast (formerly Pont-Euxin) up to present-day Chechnya in the east. It owes its name to the kurgan of Maykop, dated between the middle of the fourth millennium BC. AD and the middle of the third millennium BC. J. – C., which was found in 1897 by the archaeologist Nikolai Vesselovski (1848-1918) near Maykop. This burial mound consisted of a royal burial with many objects of gold and silver. It was influenced by the kuro-arable culture (3500-2000 BC) which borders it to the south and extends to eastern Anatolia. To the north and east is the Yamna culture area, which is contemporary to it and immediately to the north, the Novotitorovka culture (3300-2700). The culture of Maykop appears between 4000 and 3900 BC. She is best known for her burial practices. The burials are lined with stones and surmounted by a kurgan. It is from this first culture that the first kurganes appear. Later, the tumulus of stones support the kurganes. This culture is remarkable for the abundance of finely decorated bronze objects, as well as objects of gold and silver. According to the Kurgan hypothesis of Marija Gimbutas in 1956, which studied the funerary rites of these populations, it comes from intrusions originating from the Pontic steppes towards the Caucasus. It participates in the second wave of the middle of the fourth millennium, which then spread to Northern Europe around the year 3000. These tribes would have linguistic and ethnic links with Proto-Indo-Europeans and would be linked to the lower Mikhailovka group and the Kemi Oba culture (3700-2000) that extended into the present-day Crimean Peninsula. It also has more distant links with the culture of globular amphorae and the culture of corded ceramics and only with regard to economic exchanges. The Kuban River is navigable for a good part of the year. It connects to the Sea of ​​Azov and Yamna culture territory, and to the rivers Don and Donetsk present-day region. Maikop’s culture therefore enjoyed a geographical position conducive to trade. The archaeologists Tamaz Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav Ivanov estimate that in 1984 the Proto-Indo-European tribes of the Maykop culture had stopped in these territories from the South Caucasus and northern Anatolia to find an Urheimat in the steppes, which would be consistent with Colin Renfrew’s Anatolian hypothesis.

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The Maglemosian is a cultural facies of the early Mesolithic of Northern Europe (about 9000 to 6500 BC). In Scandinavia this culture precedes the Kongemosian.

This facies, defined by George F. L. Sarauw in 1903, takes its name from the archaeological site of Mullerup, which lies in a large marsh (magle mose) in Sjælland (Denmark). Following the first discoveries in 1900, a large number of similar sites were excavated in England, Poland and northern France and Skåne in Sweden. Carbon dating links the Koelbjerg Woman to this culture. Maglemosians lived in forest and wetlands; they used tools and hunting and fishing weapons in wood, stag antler (harpoons, axes and adzes), bone (needles, hooks, points) and flint. The flint microliths used as frames of bone spearheads and arrows are characteristic of this culture (according to the phases, truncation points or curve backs, triangles, trapezes, microburin technique). Larger stone tools are also used (axes, adzes, scrapers, chisels, etc.).

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Culture latiale

The latial culture is an archaeological variant of the Villanovan culture. It was located on the old Lazio. The feudal culture of the Iron Age has succeeded the apennine culture of the Bronze Age and is considered to end after the Villanova culture with the appearance in history of a state called Latium, inhabited by an archaic Latin-speaking people. Culture is therefore probably identified as a socio-political phase of self-awareness of the Latin people. It coincides more or less with the legendary period of the Latin kings of Albe la Longue and the monarchy of Rome. The latial is recognized by its urns-huts whose urns of cremation villanovienne are united, biconical and were buried in a deep well, the urn-hut is a hut of round or square shape with a pointed lid and a door leading to inside a wall. Cremation was not an exclusive rite; she shared her funeral conventions with burial, with decreasing frequency over time; however, the artifact assembly with which it is associated is distinct. Urn-huts are huts in which the population lived mainly, although during this period it developed the use of stones for temples and other public buildings.

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La Tene

The Tene or second Iron Age is a culture of Protohistory that develops in Europe between about 450 BC. BC and undefined undefined undefined Considered the culmination of Celtic civilization, it succeeded Hallstatt (1300 BC to 400 BC) and ended with the Roman conquest and Germanic migrations. Its name comes from the archaeological site of La Tène discovered in 1857 in Marin-Epagnier, on the shores of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland. La Tene gives the adjective “laténien (ne)”.

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The Lapita civilization (named after an archeological site in New Caledonia) is an original civilization, especially for its pottery decorations, which seems to have appeared on the Bismarck Islands in north-eastern New Guinea, but is then spread over about extension: several hundred Lapita archaeological sites have been found in an area ranging from New Guinea to Samoa (Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa , Wallis and futuna). It is associated with the Austronesian peoples who, from near Oceania, populated the remote Oceania and are at the origin of the Oceanian language group. Carbon dating shows that the oldest Lapita sites date back to about 3500 years ago, 1500 BC. Traces of dwellings on stilts were discovered at the Talepakemalai site at Mussau Islands (PNG), Nenumbo, Solomon Islands and Bourewa, Fiji. Some skeletons have been discovered, particularly at Téouma in the Vanuatu Archipelago and at Lapita in New Caledonia. The parallel with the Laputa Island, invented by Jonathan Swift for Gulliver’s Travels published in 1721, is only a coincidence since the first Europeans arrived in New Caledonia in 1774. The survivors of the sinking of Perugia’s boats in 1788 landed on the island of Vanikoro, near a lapita site. The French scientists who survived the expedition were perhaps the first discoverers of this culture.

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The term kurgan, also spelled kurgan or kurgan – a word of Tatar origin – is the Russian designation of tumuli. These are mounds, mounds, or even artificial hills, covering a grave. But the term refers, by extension, to the civilization that left these vestiges: the civilization of the kurganes.

Kurgan trees are particularly numerous in the northern Black Sea (southern Russia and Ukraine), but they are also found throughout eastern Europe. They were left behind by a population that lived in this region in the Neolithic, between.

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kongemose culture

The Kongemosian or Kongemose culture is a cultural facies of the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in southern Scandinavia (about 6200 years – 5300). This culture is preceded by the Maglemosian and followed by the Ertebølle culture. The Kongemose culture is contemporary with the Nøstvet and Lihult culture, whose bearers were located further north. Its name is taken from a site in western Zealand discovered in 1952. The culture is also known for its archaeological sites including its spiers in Lolland, Langeland and Skåne, discovered for the oldest in 1927. The sites are characterized by flint microliths, with wooden or bone handles. Scrapers, punches, denticulate blades, daggers and axes were also found, as well as bone hooks. These objects are often decorated with geometric patterns The economy is based on the hunting of red deer, roe deer, beaver and wild boar, supplemented by fishing. Category: Prehistory Kongemosian

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Komsa Culture

Komsa culture was a Stone Age hunter-gatherer culture that existed in northern Norway around 10000 BC. The culture is named after Komsa Mountain, in the municipality of Alta, where the first archaeological discoveries were made in 1925. Komsa culture is believed to have followed the Norwegian coastline to the south. the end of the last glaciation and occupied the newly liberated lands. The commonly accepted view today is that the oldest settlements on the northern Norwegian coast came from the coastal regions of western and southwestern Norway and ultimately from the final phase of the Paleolithic culture of Ahrensburg. North West Europe. Archaeological findings indicate that the Komsa culture was almost exclusively sea-oriented, living mainly from the seal hunt. They were also boatbuilders and competent fishermen. On the other hand, stone tools and other objects appear relatively simple in comparison with those of the Fosna culture, established at the same time in southern Norway.

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Koban culture

The Koban culture is an archaeological culture from the Late Bronze Age and early Iron Age in the north and center of the Caucasus. It is preceded by the Colchidian culture in the west and Kharachoi culture further east. The culture of Koban appears around 1100 BC and ends around 400 It is named after the village of North Ossetia where, in 1869, various objects, axes, dagues, decorative objects and others, discovered in a kurgan. Other sites were subsequently discovered in the central Caucasus.

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The Kébarien designates an archaeological culture of the Epipaleolithic located in the Near East generally between 19000 to 12000 before the present. This culture, known in the territories of present-day Lebanon, Israel (including the Negev desert) and Sinai, owes its name to the site of Kébara. It is characterized by the presence of geometrical microliths; other geometrical representations appear in Geometric Kebarian in the form of bone tools. Linked to groups of nomadic hunter-gatherers, it succeeds the Antelian (Aurignacian of the Levant) and precedes the pre-Neolithic culture of the Natufian.

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Culture of Jastorf

The Jastorf culture is an archaeological culture of the Iron Age in the north of present-day Germany that developed between the and the.

The culture of Jastorf extends from west to east, from the Elbe to the Oder; and from southern Denmark to northern Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg from north to south; covering almost all of the current northern half of Germany.

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Culture of Janislawice

The Janislawice culture is the name of the cultural unit from the village of Janislawice near Skierniewice. The cultural development of this designated entity begins around 6600 until 4600. The birth of this culture is not well understood, but it points to an Eastern provenance. Thus, in its western part it succeeds the culture of Komornica and was bordered on the north by the culture of Niemen.

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Civilization of the Indus Valley

The civilization of the Indus Valley (circa 8000 BC – 1900 BC), also known as the ‘Harappan civilization’, is a civilization of Antiquity of which the geographical area extended mainly in the Indus River valley in the Indian sub-continent (around modern Pakistan). Although likely, the influence it may have had on contemporary Hindu culture is unclear. Forgotten by history until its rediscovery in the 1920s, the civilization of the Indus ranks among its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, as one of the first civilizations, these being defined by the appearance of cities, agriculture, writing, etc.If the civilization of the Indus is not the first ancient civilization, Mesopotamia and Egypt having developed cities shortly before, it is however the one that knows the greatest geographic extension. To date, of the 1052 sites that have been discovered, more than 140 are on the shores of the Ghaggar-Hakra seasonal stream. According to some hypotheses, this hydrographic system, once permanent, watered the main agricultural production area of ​​the Indus civilization. Most of the other sites are along the Indus Valley and its tributaries but are also found in the west as far as the Iran border, in the east to Delhi, in the south to Maharashtra and north to the Himalayas. Among these sites, there are many cities like Dholavira, Ganweriwala, Mehrgarh, Harappa, Lothal, Mohenjo-daro and Rakhigarhi. At its peak, its population could have exceeded five million people. Despite all these achievements, this civilization is very poorly known. Its very existence has been forgotten until. Her writing remains indeciphered and we do not know if she has any connection with Brahmi writing, which seems unlikely in light of current knowledge. Among the mysteries that this civilization conceals, at least three questions are fundamental:

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Hongshan culture

The Hongshan Culture (红山 文化) is a Neolithic culture (4700 – 2900 BCE) of northeastern China, extending north from the Yan (燕山) Mountains to Hebei and from other highlands of Daling (大 凌河) and Xiliao (西 遼河) in Liaoning and Inner Mongolia. The Hongshan culture is particularly famous for its jade objects as well as for some quite remarkable funerary and cult sites including temples, altars, cairns and pyramidal constructions. Archaeologists believe that this culture is based on those of Xinglongwa (兴隆 洼) (Inner Mongolia and Liaoning) and Zhaobaogou (赵宝 沟) (Inner Mongolia and Hebei), with whom it has clear similarities the plan of funeral practices. Hongshan would be contemporary with the middle and late phases of Yangshao with whom she would have had exchanges.

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Hanshu Culture

Hanshu Culture (汉书 文化) is a Bronze Age culture from northeastern China in the Songhua and Nen River Plains. It is divided into two phases: the ancient Hanshu (Hanshu I) and the late Hanshu (Hanshu II). It takes its name from the archaeological site of Hanshu which is located on a hill above Lake Yueliangpao in Da’an. This site is inscribed in [[the main protected sites for their cultural and historical value at the national level (Jilin) | list of monuments of the People’s Republic of China]] (5-26) since 2001. The Hanshu II presents square houses about 7 m side and semi-buried with many storage pits. The ceramic is red-brown and the decor is painted before cooking.

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Culture of Hamburg

The culture of Hamburg or Hamburg is a reindeer hunter culture of the plains of northwestern Europe from the late Upper Paleolithic (13,500 years to 11100 BC). It is located chronologically between the end of the last glaciation (called Devensian glaciation in Great Britain, Weichsel glazial in Germany and Northern Europe, Würm glaciation for the Alps) and the beginning of the Meiendorf interstade.

The inventors of Hamburg culture are the archaeologist Gustav Schwantes and his pupil Alfred Rust, who excavated from 1930 the site of Meiendorf, north of Hamburg. In the early 1980s, for the first time, hamburger remains were found in Scandinavia at Jels in South Jutland. In southern Sweden, in Finja (Skåne), traces of Hamburg culture have also been found. Recent research (2005) shows that in the summer the men of Hamburg culture traveled far north following the foreshore along the coast of Norway: the sea level was then lower than the current level. .

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Hallstatt Civilization

In ancient history, the Hallstatt or Iron Age civilization is a culture in west-central Europe that lasts from about -1200 to -500. It succeeds the age of the final bronze and precedes the period of La Tène or Second Age of iron (end of Protohistory). It extends north of the Alps to present-day Czech, Bavaria, and northern Austria. This culture is generally considered by historians as the cradle of Celtic peoples, or at least of populations dominated by Indo-European elites of Celtic languages. It derives its name from an archaeological site in Hallstatt in the Salzkammergut region of Austria. The term Hallstatt gives the adjective hallstattien (ne) and is abbreviated as Ha in the jargon of the specialists.

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Kingdom of Guge

The kingdom of Guge (middle of) located in Tibet in present-day Zanda County, Ngari, sheltered a brilliant civilization and was one of the sources of the Buddhist renaissance in Tibet. He experienced periods of expansion which brought the valleys of Zanskar, Upper Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti under his subjection. Its capitals were Tholing and Tsaparang, located in the Sutlej Valley about 1100 km west of Lhasa, not far from the sacred Kailash Mountain.

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Yuchanyan Cave

Yuchanyan Cave is a prehistoric site of great archaeological significance in Hunan, South China. Carbon 14 dates are evaluated between and before the common era, AEC, and this corresponds to the final Pleistocene with the earliest signs of early Neolithization in China. This is not a Neolithic site, since the site was occupied by a hunter-gatherer population. Due to the history of later cultures this site may appear as the first milestone in progressive neolithization in China. Especially there are fragments of one of the world’s earliest potteries (in the state of knowledge of 2012) while the cave has also been found to contain traces of wild rice grains. This cave is associated, to have similar shards, with those of Zengpiyan and Miaoyan, nearby: the hunter-gatherer population that occupied the premises in all three cases seems to have had comparable living conditions and shared similar knowledge: pottery fragments that are also about as old were found there. On these three sites the polished stone is also present, although later, but it also appears on other sites of the final Pleistocene in China, as Longwangchan (20000-15000) in Shaanxi, always in hunter-gatherers. Other ceramics were found in northern China at one of the Hutouliang sites (circa 13080) in Hebei. They are therefore hunter-gatherers who “invented” ceramics and polished stone, in China as in other parts of the world. This leads to rethinking categories like the “Neolithic” in contemporary research.

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Galta is an archaeological site in the municipality of Rennesøy, Rogaland County, Norway. Galta is located north of the municipality, on the E39. This site is known to house several dwellings of the Stone Age. The oldest, Galta 3 dates from about -10000 BC. J. – C. and was discovered in 1989-1990. It is the oldest group of houses found near the coast in southern Norway.

The tools found in the living quarters show that the inhabitants belonged to the cultural movement that archaeologists call Ahrensburg culture. This culture extends to the north of Europe, from Poland to Belgium, the Netherlands and England. In Scandinavia, it is mainly present in Denmark, but also in Skåne. The people who came to Galta undertook the journey of lands further south and are now submerged.

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Culture of Friedenhain-Prestovice

The Friedenhain-Prestovice culture was brought to light by German and Czech archaeologists in the early 1980s by comparing the archaeological remains collected on the one hand in Friedenhain near Straubing (Bavaria) and on the other hand in Prestovice (Czechoslovakia). ), on the banks of the Otava, a tributary of the Moldau.

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Culture Fosna-Hensbacka

The cultures of Fosna and Hensbacka are two very similar cultures of the Mesolithic in Scandinavia, often grouped under the name Fosna-Hensbacka culture. This complex also includes the Komsa culture, which despite the difference of tools is considered part of the Fosna culture. The Fosna / Komsa culture was located on the Norwegian coast while the Hensbacka culture was on the Swedish west coast, especially Bohuslän.

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Culture Federmesser

The groups at Federmesser (also called complex or curved-back parts industries) designate a tool-making tradition of the late Epipaleolithic or Paleolithic of the Northern European Plain, Poland (called Tarnowien and Witowien in this case). region) to northern France and Great Britain, succeeding the Magdalenian, dated between 12000 and 10800 BC. It is closely related to the Tjongerian culture of the Netherlands and Belgium, since it has been suggested that both cultures would be part of a more generalized complex that will take the name of Azilien. It used small flint blades and shared features with the Creswellian of Great Britain.

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Archaeological facies of Schnabelkanne

Archeological facies of Schnabelkanne defines a typology that refers to a homogeneous (or homogeneous) enochoos made in bronze and whose pouring spout is assigned a raised form. Most pitchers of this type have been found in an area including Switzerland and southern Germany. Other utensils of this kind have been evidenced in Gaul, Etruria and Padana, and within the Celto-Italian territories with golaseccante culture. These oenochoes were the subject of a very first field of study and cataloging, detailed and detailed, published in and directed by the French archaeologist Joseph Déchelette (-).

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The final Epipaleolithic or Palaeolithic is a phase of the prehistoric recent, succeeding the Upper Paleolithic about 12500 years before our era and preceding the Mesolithic. Its definition is complex and involves chronological, climatic, environmental, social and technical elements. The Epipaleolithic is marked by the end of glacial times and a generalized softening, accompanied in Europe by an important development of the forest cover and thus by a modification of fauna (disappearance of gregarious species of open environment, especially reindeer, and development of forest species, including deer or wild boar). The way of life of the human groups of the Epipaleolithic is in continuity with those of the Paleolithic and their economy is always that of groups of hunter-gatherers. However, the environmental changes will induce a certain number of technical adaptations (generalization of the arc, more adapted to the hunting in forest, and thus production of flint reinforcements of small dimensions but always at the expense of blades) or behavioral ( development of individual hunting, on the lookout, exploitation of more diversified resources).

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Shang Dynasty

The Shang () dynasty, also called the Yin () dynasty, is according to Chinese historiography the second royal dynasty to have dominated China, from around 1570 to 1045 BC It succeeds the Xia dynasty and precedes that of the Zhou who supplants her in the middle of the. Since the 1930s, finds of oracular inscriptions on turtle bones and scales in Anyang, Henan have revealed that there was the last capital of the Shang, Yinxu kings, during the period from about 1250 to 1050. It is possible that the kings who ruled from other sites during the previous period, the Erligang period (c.1600-1300.), Were also members of the Shang Dynasty, but the absence of writing for this time does not confirm it. This period, which covers a large part of the country, sees many changes occurring in the Central Plain of China, primarily from the focus in the Yellow River Valley from which the Shang Dynasty emerges. The first states and the first cities develop, as well as a remarkable bronze craft, and the writing appears during the final period. Other regions of China are not left out, as remarkable crops have been highlighted in several places, including the Yangtze River Basin. The idea of ​​a seizure of the Shang kings over much of the Central Plain is therefore questioned.

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Dorset Culture

The Dorset culture, or Dorset, is an archeological culture that predates Inuit culture in the North American Arctic, particularly in northern Canada today and in Greenland. It is characterized by a lithic industry of microblades, small villages of half-buried rectangular houses and a sophisticated art.

The Dorset culture was named and defined in 1925 by the anthropologist Diamond Jenness to designate a collection of archaeological artifacts from Cape Dorset, Nunavut, that appear to have been produced by human groups with a lifestyle different from that of the Inuit and older. The Dorset was later subdivided into four periods: old (500 BC), medium (0-600), recent (900-1350) and late. Dorset cultural elements can be found in Thule sites up to.

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Wilton Culture

The Wilton or Wilton culture is a prehistoric cultural facies prevalent in southern and eastern Africa at Later Stone Age, about 6000 years old. This culture is particularly characterized by the presence of microliths and a typological diversity more marked than the previous cultures. It was defined by John Hewitt after excavating a cave on Wilton Farm in collaboration with C. W. Wilmot.

Wilton culture is documented in Kalambo Falls, on the border between Zambia and Tanzania, and in the Twyfelfontein Valley deposits in Namibia. A 2,300-year-old BC camp was discovered in Gwisho, Zambia, near Kafue.

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Karasuk culture

Karasuk culture, karasuk culture or karasuk culture (probably Russian: Karasuk being with Aman a tributary of Irtych, as well as a lake of the same region), is the name given to a group of Bronze Age societies, dating from -1200 to -700 and replaces the Andronovo culture from which it derives from an eastern branch.

It extended from the surroundings of the Aral Sea or the Volga in the west, to the high parts of the Yenisei River, around 1500 to 800 BC, and preceded by the Afanasievo Culture.

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Culture of Siba

The culture of Siba (1900-1500 BCE) is a Chinese culture of the Bronze Age. It is located in the Hexi corridor. She ensured communication between the populations of the West who brought bronze technology and the breeding of cattle and horses and those of the East, especially her neighbor in the East: the culture of Qijia. On the other side she has received cultural influences from inside China.

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Culture of Qijia

The culture of Qijia (2200-1600) is the first culture of the late Neolithic that makes, in China, the transition with the Bronze Age. It can therefore be considered a culture of the Bronze Age. It is located mainly in Gansu, east of Qinghai and south of Ningxia. Johan Gunnar Andersson discovered the first site in Qijiaping (齊 家坪) in 1923, as he searched west for the origins of Yangshao culture. Chronologically and culturally it follows and inherits the culture of Majiayao, a culture that includes copper and bronze objects, the oldest in China’s present territories.

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Culture of Little-Richard

The Peu-Richard culture is a Neolithic culture, established in Saintonge around 3400 BC. Its name is linked to the many remains found near the place called Peu-Richard in the town of Thénac in the department of Charente-Maritime.

This culture, whose origin is undoubtedly Atlantic, develops between 3400 to 2900 BC. J.-C. The habitat is grouped in fortified sites of more than diameter surrounded by ditches of wide and deep as those found on the communes of Barzan, Semussac, L’Éguille and Cozes.

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Longshan Culture

Longshan culture (or better: “Longshan cultures”) refers to a group of cultures with certain common characteristics, during a period called “Longshan Period” (2900-1900 BCE), Late Neolithic . These cultures developed into two distinct groups, on separate chronologies: one in Shandong, Liaodong and the other in the lower and middle Yellow River Basin, Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Hebei, Jiangsu and Hubei. Longshan culture is named after the town of Longshan on the territory of Jinan Commune in Shandong, where Wu Jinding, 吳金鼎, discovered the site of Chengziya, 城子 崖 “in 1928. This culture gave birth to a beautiful ceramic well differentiated according to the places of production. It is in this basin that would have imposed the mythical Xia dynasty, and that were constituted the kingdoms of the Shang and Zhou dynasties. Hence the huge investment in the Yellow River Basin that has benefited Chinese archaeological research, its objective being politically stated by Su Bingqi, in 1997: “The objective of modern Chinese archeology is to build the national history. But recent research in China has diversified beyond the Central Plain towards the North, the West near Gansu and the South or Southwest, and placing the Longshan culture within a larger number of cultures, none of which can claim an advance over others, and with other cultures having their own orientation.

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Culture of black and red ceramics

The Black and Red Ceramic Culture (CCNR) is an archaeological culture from the northern Indian subcontinent.

Culture of the Iron Age, it is dated between and and is associated with the post-Rigveda Vedic period. In some sites it is associated with Harappan Pottery, and according to some researchers like Tribhuan N. Roy, the CCNR may have directly influenced the culture of gray-painted ceramics and the cultures of polished black pottery from the north. Culture of black and red ceramics is unknown west of the Indus Valley. The use of iron, at first scattered, is rather early, posteriorly about two or three centuries after the beginning of the Iron Age by the Hittites in Anatolia, and two or three centuries earlier the iron age of the Celts of Europe. This culture was followed by the cultivation of gray painted ceramics.

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Cultivation of the ceramic decorated with the punch

The culture of punch-decorated ceramics or (in German) Stichbandkeramik (abbreviated as STK or STbK), Danubien Ib culture of Vere Gordon Childe, or culture of the Middle Danube is the successor of the culture of linear ceramics (banded culture), a major archaeological event of Neolithic Central Europe. The STK flourishes around 4600-4400 BC. Located in Silesia in Poland, in eastern Germany and in the north of the Czech Republic, it coexists with the Lengyel culture in the south and with the Rössen culture in the west.

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Komornica Culture

The Komornica culture name is attributed to the oldest traces of settlements in the territory of the Wieliszew municipality dating back more than 8000 BC. J.C. which were discovered in many archaeological sites on the territory of the village of Komornica (ex: flint tools). The so-called Komornica culture, which is one of the oldest cultures discovered on the East-European continent, dominated mainly Poland. In its western part it is replaced by the Chojnice-Pienki culture while in the east it is the culture of Janislawice that succeeds it.

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Prehellenic A

Prehellenic A is a linguistic concept postulated following the analysis of Greek toponymy. The Greek place-names ending in -nthos, -mn-, -r-, -m-, -n- and -ss- form indeed a set whose etymology can not be explained by the Greek. It has been deduced that they must result from languages ​​previously spoken in ancient Greek. The comparison with the Anatolian languages ​​of this previous state of the Greek language has led many authors to rank it among them.

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