False Etruscan warriors

The False Etruscan warriors are three terracotta statues similar to works of the ancient Etruscans, but which are in fact counterfeits. The statues, created by the Italian brothers Pio and Alfonso Riccardi and three of their six sons, were bought by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York between 1915 and 1921. The Riccardi brothers began their career as art counterfeiters when the Roman art dealer Domenico Fuschini hired them to make ceramic shards and a set of “old-fashioned” vases.

Their first important work is a large bronze tank. In 1908 Domenico Fuschini informed the British Museum that the chariot had been found in an old Etruscan fort near Orvieto, and that the Riccardi brothers had been solicited to clean it. They were commissioned to restore it by the British Museum, which bought it and added it to its collections in 1912. Pio Riccardi died shortly after the transaction.

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Gospel of the woman of Jesus

The Gospel of the Woman of Jesus is a text in Coptic written on a fragment of papyrus that includes the words: “Jesus said to them,” My wife … “”. This text has been presented as a Coptic translation of the. According to experts, this document is a forgery.

On September 18, 2012, Professor Karen Leigh King, invited to the International Conference on Coptic Studies in Rome, announces the existence of a 3.8 papyrus fragment with the phrase ” Jesus said to them, “My wife …” “. King and his colleague Anne-Marie Luijendijk call the fragment “Gospel of the Bride of Jesus” for reference purposes, but acknowledge that the name is controversial. King insists that the fragment,. The Vatican newspaper L’Osservatore Romano declares that the Gospel is one. A number of independent researchers confirm this judgment. However, Professor Alberto Camplani, of the University of Rome “La Sapienza”, who was commissioned to carry out the analysis on which the Vatican newspaper based his article, said in 2012 in a television documentary:.

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Crystal skull

A crystal skull is a representation of human skull in rock crystal. This type of object was very popular with pre-Columbian Mesoamerican antiquities lovers. Falsely considered at the time as representative of the Aztec and Mayan cultures, the most prestigious examples, most probably made in Germany, were the “skull of Paris” (now at the musée du quai Branly) and the “skull of London”. “(), Which have been the subject of many articles and whose loan has often been requested. From the beginning of, these objects attracted esoteric enthusiasts who lent them a supernatural origin, as well as powers of physical and spiritual healing. The most remarkable was that explorer F.A. Mitchell Hedges claimed to have discovered in the 1920s in Belize. Excavations have not confirmed the supposed place of the crystal skull in pre-Columbian cultures. In the 1990s, pieces of public collections were the subject of expertise whose results indicate that it would be late creations, probably from, or at least the colonial era for older. Since the scientific analyzes proving that they were cut to the, that of Paris is more exposed only exceptionally, as in 2008 on the occasion of the release of the film Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the skull of crystal or still in 2011 at the Laténium, for an exhibition entitled “The Age of Fake”. That of London is accompanied by a sign explaining that it was probably made in. Nevertheless, crystal skulls retain their power of fascination and the world still believes in their power.

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The Antiques Affair

‘L’affaire des antiquités’ (original title:’) is a science fiction comedy by Robert Silverberg. The theme, which was new at the time of the publication of the news, concerns archaeological fraud applied to the field of science fiction.

If only publications in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and France are taken into account, the news was published between 1956 and 2012, 13 times in Silverberg news collections or in anthologies gathering news from various authors.

The news is written in 1956 and appears under the title ‘in the magazine’.

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Archaeological fraud

An archaeological fraud is a scientific fraud related to archeology. It can consist of a production of false objects supposedly ancient, the fraudulent introduction of false or authentic objects in real archaeological levels, or even the creation of all parts of an archaeological site. There are also examples of paleontological frauds like the one related to the archaeoraptor.

Like artistic fakes, most archaeological frauds are motivated by greed. The monetary value of an object supposed to be several thousand years old is greater than that of the same object sold as a souvenir. It can happen that fake artefacts are made to be sold on the antique market, or even museums. However, the authors of archaeological or paleontological frauds may have other motivations. They can try to create evidence for a point of view or theory that they defend, or on the contrary against ideas they reject. If the goal is to create evidence in the religious field, then it is appropriate to speak of “”. They can also search for themselves a form of celebrity or prestige as inventors. So,

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The Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (ZPE)

The Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (ZEP) (ISSN) is a German scientific journal founded in 1967 and appearing four or five times a year. It is one of the most important journals in the fields of Greek and Latin epigraphy and Greek and Latin papyrology. Ludwig Koenen (co-founder) is one of his big names, as well as Reinhold Merkelbach.

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Tabula Osca

The Tabula Osca or Osque Tablet is a bronze inscription written in the Oset alphabet on a bronze plaque that dates from. She was found near the town of Agnone in Molise in Italy. Since 1873, the original has been preserved in the British Museum. The Tabula Osca, with the Tabula Bantina and the Cippus Abellanus, is one of the most important inscriptions in the long-gone osque language.

This small bronze tablet, attached to an iron chain that was discovered in 1848 on the banks of the Sangro River at Fonte di Romito, between Capracotta and Agnone, was bought at the merchant Alessandro Castellani by the British Museum in 1873.

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Tabula Bantina

The Tabula Bantina is a bronze osque tablet, dating from the end of BC. AD

One of its faces is written in the Oscan language and constitutes the most important testimony of this language with the Cippus Abellanus (the other side is written in Latin). The found inscription consists of fragments always incomplete, called “fragment of Naples” and “fragment of Adamesteanu-Torelli”. The fragment of Naples was found in 1790 on Mount Montrone, in the municipality of Oppido Lucano, and is now exposed to the National Archaeological Museum of Naples. The second fragment was discovered in 1967 by Mario Torelli and is kept in the Adamesteanu Museum in Venouse. Dinu Adamesteanu believed that the text osque, for the second fragment at least, was actually a translation of an original text in Latin made by a person who did not perfectly master the osque language.

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Eugubine tables

The Eugubin Tables () are bronze tablets found in Gubbio (the ancient Iguvium), in Umbria, a region of central Italy.

One named Paolus Greghori and a certain Presentina would have discovered the 7 eugubine tables in the Roman theater of Gubbio around the year 1444. More precisely, according to the consul and notary Antonio Concilio (who published a book on Gubbio in 1673), the tables were discovered in a subterranean mosaic floor not far from the Roman theater. There is controversy over the actual number of tables discovered which could be 9 in total. They were sold to the municipality of Gubbio on. A book by Johannes Smetius published in 1588 is the first to offer a reproduction of tables. Bernardino Baldi ordered the first official translation delivered to him in 1613, but was strongly criticized by the academic community. In 1614, the Dutchman Adrien van Schrieck, in a book on the origins of peoples in Europe, refers to Table VII in which he claims to recognize the old Belgian language. Between 1728 and 1734, the French Louis Bourguet proposes an interpretation of the tables in Latin character. In 1961, the Latinist Alfred Ernout published a study of the texts of the Engubian tables, where he expressed a large number of reservations about the “ambitious” interpretations of his counterparts.

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Nestorian Stele of Xi’an

The ” ” Nestorian Stele of Xi’an ” ‘in China is a stele dating back to the Tang period, erected on January 7, 781, which describes the first one hundred and fifty years of the history of Christianity in China. It establishes that the Christian religion has been practiced for a very long time in China. From the eighth century, the mission of the Church of the Orient, called Nestorian, is recognized by the emperor Tang Taizong. His most famous priest, Alopen spoke Syriac, probably came from Persia, and was in 635 authorized by the emperor to reside in his capital of Chang’an (now Xi’an); the stele reports that he built a church there in 638.

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Stele n ° 1 of La Mojarra

The Stele of La Mojarra is a pre-Columbian Mesoamerican monument from the Late Preclassic Period, dated to the second century AD, around 156 CE (common era), and epi-Olmec culture. Its name comes from the place of its discovery near the village of La Mojarra, in the state of Veracruz in Mexico, not far from the archaeological site of Tres Zapotes. It is a basalt block with a weight of four tons and a height of. One of the sides of the block is occupied by a bas-relief presenting the full-length portrait of a man with a very elaborate headdress and costume. And on all of its faces, it presents more than 500 glyphs of epi-olmec writing or isthmic today still partially deciphered.

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Stele of vultures

The Vultures Stele, or ” ‘Eannatum’s Victory Stele, King of Lagash’ ”, is a historically dated stele from the Archaic Dynasties III (2500-2340 BC), circa 2450 BC. BC commemorating the victory of the city-state Lagash on his rival Umma. She was exhumed in fragmentary state on the site of Tello (ancient Girsu) in Mesopotamia. This is the first historically known stele, emphasizing a military victory and the warrior role of the ruler. It is kept in the Department of Oriental Antiquities of the Louvre.

This stele commemorates the victory of the city of Lagash on his enemy Umma around 2340 BC. The conflict was between the two cities because of a piece of land allocated by the king of Kish Mesilim Lagash a century earlier but claimed the city of Umma. The stela has on both sides a Sumerian text of 830 lines, written in the first person in the name of King Eannatum to glorify his victory. It is the most important historical document of the time of the archaic dynasties.

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Stele of Mesha

The Mesha Stele is a basalt stele discovered in 1868 and engraved with an inscription dating back to the time of the Moabite king Mesha (). The text of thirty-four lines (the longest recorded discovery so far for this time of ancient Israel), is written in Moabite. Dating from 850 BC BC, about the victories of Mesha during his revolt against the kingdom of Israel he undertook after the death of his suzerain Ahab.

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Stele of Victory Hill

The Victory Hill Stele () is a commemorative stele of the Jin Dynasty. It was erected in 1185 by Emperor Shizu in honor of the resolution made there in 1114 by Aguda and his 2500 warriors with the aim of overthrowing the Liao Dynasty. This stele is found on the prairie 1.5 km east of Shibeichengzi Village in Fuyu District, Jilin Province, northeast of the People’s Republic of China.

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Stele of Kwanggaet’o

The ” ‘Kwanggaet’o’ ‘stele was erected in 414 in honor of King Kwanggaet’o of Koguryo on the orders of his successor, Changsu. She is near her grave in the Chinese city of Ji’an, near the Yalou which marks the border with North Korea, which was then the capital of the kingdom. Carved in a block of granite nearly seven meters high, it supports on all four sides a text written in classical Chinese and composed of 1802 characters. It is of particular importance since it is the oldest written local document that provides information on the history of a Korean kingdom. It is also known as the Gwanggaeto Stele (Romanization used in South Korea) and the Haotai King Stele or Haotaiwang Stele according to Chinese usage. The Kwanggaet’o spelling is based on the McCune-Reischauer romanization. A life-size copy is on display in Seoul and two stamped copies of the text are in the possession of China and the National Museum of Japan.

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Stela of Cascajal

The Cascajal Stele is a stone discovered in Mexico in 1999, studied from 2005 and would carry the oldest writing discovered in America.

According to US and Mexican researchers who participated in the study published in the journal Science on September 15, 2006, these would be hieroglyphics, among the oldest in the New World, inscribed on a block of serpentine rock. These signs are similar to the engravings made by the Olmec civilization, one of the great pre-Columbian civilizations preceding the Mayas and the Aztecs. This civilization lived on a large part of Mesoamerica from up to The block of stone was discovered in Mexico, in a gravel quarry during construction work of a road near the site of Cascajal, located at a little more than one kilometer from the great Olmec site of San Lorenzo, in the present state of Veracruz. It was the inhabitants of the village of Lomas de Tacamichapa near the town of Jáltipan, in the south of the state of Veracruz, who discovered it in 1999, but the authors of the study did not visit the site until 2005. They named the Cascajal Stela stone and concluded that the latter, on which inscriptions have been erased several times, was 2900 years old. However this dating is not safe and the stele leaves some skeptical archaeologists, such as David Grove, Christopher Pool and Max Schvoerer, as to the authenticity of the hieroglyphs because the stone was not discovered by the researchers themselves .

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Stele of Baška

The Baška or Baška Stone (Bašćanska ploča) is one of the earliest monuments of the Croatian language, dating from the year 1100. The stone is discovered in 1851 on the island of Krk, on the pavement of the church Saint Lucia Romanesque (Sveta Lucija) in Jurandvor, near Baška. Since 1934, the original has been kept at the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb. The stone tablet takes note of the donation by King Zvonimir of land to a Benedictine abbey, in the time of Abbot Drziha.

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Psephis of Lumbarda

Psephis of Lumbarda is a stele discovered near Lumbarda. She describes the city foundation by the Greeks in. The epigraph comments on the contract signed beforehand between the Greek settlers from Issa or Isa (Vis) and the Illyrian island chiefs, all of them committing them to unconditional fidelity. The inscriptions end with the enumeration of the names of the 200 families of settlers. Today, it can be seen in the museum of the city of Korčula.

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Stone of the Decalogue of Los Lunas

The Los Lunas Decalogue Stone is a huge rock located on the slopes of Hidden Mountain, near Los Lunas, New Mexico, about 50 kilometers south of Albuquerque, with an inscription carved on a regular basis. the dish of the rock and which would be similar to the text of the decalogue.

The weight of this rock has been evaluated at. It is therefore untransportable to be sheltered in a museum and a fortiori was not transportable in antiquity. The area is private and access is paid for visitors.

The first mention of the stone dates from 1933, when Professor Frank Hibben, an archaeologist from the University of New Mexico was led by a guide to this rock, which would have been initially discovered in 1880 by a child.

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An ostracon, or ostrakon (from ancient Greek / ostrakon, “shell”), plural ostracons, or ostrakons or (jargon) ostraca or ostraka (/ ostraka), is, in ancient times, a shard of pottery or a burst of limestone used as a writing medium. The term originally refers to the oyster shell in ancient Greek, but its meaning evolves rather quickly by formal analogy.

Various ancient civilizations – Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, etc. – have used ostraca for many centuries.

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The oppidum of Castellan

The oppidum of Castellan is an oppidum (place of public refuge, characteristic of the Celtic civilization) located in the commune of Istres (Bouches-du-Rhône), in the region Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur in France. The oppidum is perched on a rocky promontory which advances by dominating it from the top of its pond of the Olive tree, on its southern bank. He was busy at the. The plateau is about 300 meters long and 130 wide.

Joseph Thoret began in 1937 the first excavations of a shelter on the side of the oppidum. In 1948, members of the Association of Friends of Old Istres undertake new research, led by Eugène Aquaron. Unfortunately, for the most part, the structures now uncovered are now destroyed. They also discover at the foot of the oppidum a Gallo-Roman villa called “villa of St. Catherine”, dated Son furniture is composed of painted walls, goblets and Vespasian coins. A staircase now disappeared is nearby and kitchen debris. Excavations continue in 1950, by Amar in 1977, and Marty in 2000.

On a plot of chalk and green sandstone, rocky spur in safre, composed of shellfish molasse. On the escarpments, we can observe layers, superimposing marly clays and macignos depending on the formation of the lignite land that occupies the summits.

It has found charred grape seeds and aeolian ceramics, gray wavy, Ionic pinkish soft paste with circular bands, red-brown colors, may be of Marseille manufacture, scrap of amphora micaceous Marseille, Campanian, bearing a Greek graffiti:, and on the foot: “A” (the “o” minuscule not exceeding the middle of the line down, large hook of Arezzo, incomplete bearing two rectangular seals: “L. “Titi” The clay cooktop of the complex patterned decoration for domestic use, proven by its wear Y is a geometric pattern, a double rectangular frame partitioned by two oblique lines that intersect at the center. the raw clay with the help of a stretched cord, the drawing is completed by other motifs on its periphery, at the corners and in the center of the hearth, rings, plates and keys in the form of curved pitons, executed by the impress ion of metallic objects The rock inscription of the oppidum du Castellan is a Gallo-Greek inscription, of Gallic language and using the Greek alphabet, deeply engraved (3 to 4 cm) on a rock wall at 2.40 meters of the ground. The letters are almost 20 centimeters high. Note that the “M” is ligated to the “A” with broken bar. This inscription probably dates from. The inscription is:. His translation, made by Pierre-Yves Lambert in 2003, is: .We recognize the word Gaulish matron here. It is a genitive plural of Gaulish matir, the mother. The monumental character of the inscription invites us to privilege the idea that it is a dedication made to mother goddesses. This excavation at the foot of the rock was pushed to the pebble ground over a length of 4 meters and 2.2 meters deep, did not give any debris of pottery.

Some vestiges of the fortification of the are still visible in the North and North-East, it is a rampart-terrace (M2) whose dating is provided by the furniture taken in the embankment of the construction. It could be cleared on a length of 9.2 m. In height it is kept in the west at 1.6 m. The wall continues further east, attested by the presence of identical blocks. The first course consists of roughly squared blocks 1.5 m long. The stones of this building were extracted on the spot. They are yellowish calcitudite, Vindobonian, rich in shellfish debris and containing rare splinters of vertebrate bones.

Gallic houses have been discovered. The Society of the Friends of Old Istres has cleared an apse box with a central pole hole, and has discovered a gray wavy Ionic Aeolian ceramics with reddish circular bands, brown, possibly possibly of Marseilles, Campanian origin and carrying a Greek graffiti. The dwelling with some amenities (bread oven, U-shaped fireplace), and in this same dwelling, the clay hob, with intricate pattern decorations, are dated.

Koguryo Monument

The Koguryo monument is a late fifth century stele commemorating the conquest of several fortresses along the Namhangang by the Koguryo Kingdom. It is located in Jungangtap-myeon near the city of Chungju in central South Korea. Discovered on April 8, 1979 by researchers from Dankook University, it was ranked national treasure No. 205 in 1981. It is one of the oldest texts found in Korea.

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Changnyeong Monument

The Changnyeong Monument is a stele dating from the reign of King Jinheung (r.540-576) of Silla which was found in Changnyeong-eup in southern Korea. Erected to commemorate a territorial expansion, it has been classified National Treasure No. 33 since December 20, 1962. According to the inscription it bears, this stele was planted in 561 (one year before the final conquest of the whole from the confederation of Gaya) to commemorate the conquest of Bitbeol Gaya in 555. It was initially in the mountain fortress before being moved under its current pavilion in 1924.

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Bukhansan Monument

The Bukhansan monument is a stele dating from the reign of King Jinheung (r 540-576) of Silla which was found in Korea on a mountain in northern Seoul, Bukhansan. Classified as a national treasure, it is currently preserved at the National Museum of Korea. Originally set on a two-storey stone pedestal, it is a rectangular monument with a height of for wide and thick whose value is particularly important because it carries one of the oldest inscriptions giving information on history from Korea. The text is composed of 12 lines of 32 characters that have suffered from erosion. He celebrates the territorial expansion reached by King Jinheung in the Han River Valley and his visit to the new frontiers of his kingdom.

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Adolf Kirchhoff

Johann Wilhelm Adolf Kirchhoff, born January 6, 1826 in Berlin and died February 27, 1908 in the same city, is a German philologist and Hellenist. He was also a famous epigraphist. He studied in particular the Germanic runes. Son of a history painter, Johann Jakob Kirchhoff, he studied classical philology at the University of Berlin from 1842 to 1846, notably with Karl Lachmann and August Boeckh. He taught in several institutions before being appointed in 1865 professor of classical philology at the University of Berlin (Frederick William University, now Humboldt), where he lives all his life.

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Stele of Kaleshin

The Kaleshin stele (also transcribed Kelišin, Kelishin, Kel-i-Schin, Kel-i-chin, کلهشین in Persian) is a monumental stele of the ancient civilization of Urartu, near the present border of Iran and of Iraq.

Kaleshin means “blue stone” or “blue stele” in Kurdish, “kel” usually referring to a funerary stele. It is on the parade of the same name, at 2981 m altitude, on the Oshnaviyeh road (West Azerbaijan province, Iran) in Rawanduz (Erbil province, Iraq) which was, in ancient times, a busy passageway between Upper Mesopotamia and the Iranian plateau. Another pass of the region bore the same name but the stele that was there was destroyed. It is presented as a diorite cut block, a dark blue volcanic rock with a bilingual inscription in Assyrian and Urartean. It commemorates the acquisition of the city of Musasir by Ishpuhini, King of Urartu, and his son Menua, as well as the pilgrimage of these two kings to Musasir in 810 BC. J. – C. in order to pay homage to the god Haldi. This is the first inscription which founds the Urartean monarchy on a religious basis; Haldi will remain the great god of the dynasty until the bag of Musasir by the Assyrian king Sargon II in 714 BC. J.-C.

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Orkhon Inscriptions

The “Orkhon inscriptions” are the oldest written records of the Orkhon alphabet. These are a few hundred inscriptions engraved dating from, discovered in the valley of the river Orkhon and in the upper Yenisei in 1889 by a Russian expedition led by Nicholas Iadrintsev. The works on the first inscriptions were deciphered by the Danish philologist Vilhelm Thomsen and published in 1893 by Vassili Radlov.

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Inscription on copper of Laguna

The Laguna copper inscription, found in 1989 in Laguna Bay, Metro Manila, is the oldest known Philippine writing document to date. It bears an inscription with the date 822 of the Saka era corresponding to April 21, 900. Some authors consider that it is written in a mixture of Sanskrit, Old-Javanese, old-Malay and Old-Tagalog. Other writers consider that the language of this inscription is more simply old-Malay, with borrowing from Sanskrit, as was generally the case in this type of inscription. At the time, the Philippines was a stop on the trade routes linking the Indonesian archipelago to South China. Malaysian sailors and merchants played a leading role in these exchanges. The inscription was translated for the first time by Antoon Postma, a Dutch researcher. She declares that her bearer, a certain Namwaran, is released from a debt of gold. This document is kept in the National Museum of the Filipino People. The copper plate differs in manufacturing the Javanese plates of the time in that the words are engraved on the surface, instead of being inscribed in a metal plate heated and softened.

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Lapidary inscription

A lapidary inscription is a text engraved in stone. The study of lapidary inscriptions is the subject of epigraphy. The lapidary inscriptions have been engraved since ancient times. By their durability in time, the lapidary inscriptions have been a source of valuable lessons for historians. Latin epigraphy was brought to a certain end by the Roman Empire in the century of our era, especially on the pedestal of Trajan’s Column, a veritable canon for the history of writing and typography.

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Hathigumpha registration

The inscription “Hathigumpha” (the “elephant cave”) of Udayagiri, near Bhubaneshwar, in Orissa, was engraved on the orders of Kharavela, the ruler of Empira Kalinga, India. The Hathigumpha inscription consists of seventeen lines deeply engraved in Brahmi characters on the overhang of a natural cave called Hathigumpha on the southern flank of the Udayagiri Hills near Bhubaneshwar. It faces directly the rock of Ashoka Edicts in Dhauli, located at a distance of about 10 kilometers. The inscription is engraved using what is considered one of the most archaic forms of the Brahmi kalinga alphabet, which also suggests a dating around 150 BC. J.-C.

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Registration of Sohgaura

The inscription of Sohgaura is an inscription on copper plate, written in Prakrit in Brahmi script. It was discovered in Soghaura, a village on the banks of the Rapti River, about 20km south-east of Gorakhpur, in the Gorakhpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India. The plate, consisting of a line of symbolic drawings and four lines of text is the result of a molding. The inscription is sometimes presented as pre-Ashoka, or even pre-Maurya, but the writing of the plaque, especially the configuration of the aksharas would rather suggest a date later than Ashoka. Nowadays, this plaque is generally considered to be from the Maurya period, and seems to be part of the larger set of inscriptions (the Ashoka Edits), written by Ashoka across India. The text of the plate has been translated as follows. He mentioned the establishment of two grain depots (Kosthagara) to fight famine. This is the oldest known.

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Registration of Prestino

The inscription of Prestino is an epigraphic text engraved on a lintel of limestone. The archaeological piece was discovered in, within the framework of a preventive prospection, within the fluvial waters traversing the city of Lugano, in Italy. Subsequent research has shown that the lintel of limestone was an integral part of a step whose remains were found on the side of a hill, located in the heart of the comasque hamlet Prestino di Como. Although untranslated, the epigraphy inscribed on the small block was the subject of a transcription in, under the auspices of the Italian linguist Alessandro Morandi. This analysis revealed that the writing is a dedication whose characters come from a Celto-Italian type alphabet: the lépontique alphabet. In addition, the radiocarbon dating of the lintel made it possible to attribute the artifact to the surroundings of. The lintel with epigraphic vocation is one of the few testimonies that can unquestionably confirm the presence of Celtic peoples in the North-Italian territory before the.

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Registration of Poggio Sommavilla

Registration of Poggio Sommavilla is an inscription on a vase found in Sabine on the site of the necropolis of Poggio Sommavilla (Collevecchio town in the province of Rieti). This inscription is important both by its seniority (end of) and by the fact that it is one of the very few written testimonies in relation with the Sabines; it is a useful document in the history of the diffusion of the Etruscan alphabet in Italy. The vase is kept at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.

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Registration of Myazedi

The Myazedi inscription (also called “Rajakuma inscription” or “Gubyaukgyi stone inscription”) is the earliest epigraphic testimony of Burma. It is located in the Myazedi pagoda (Myazedi means “emerald stupa”), in Myinpagan (south of Bagan) and dates back to 1113. It is a quadrangular stele, bearing the same text on each face, in four different languages: Pâli, Môn, Old Burmese and Pyu. At the time of its discovery, the pyu script was not yet deciphered, which earned the stele the nickname. The text is a dedication of Prince Rajakuma (son of King Kyanzittha) of a golden Buddha statue at the Gubyaukgyi Temple, to which he also attributes 3 villages. The stele exists in two copies. The first is still near the Myadezi pagoda, under a shelter, the second is exposed to the archaeological museum of Bagan.

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Kebon Kopi’s Inscription

Kebon Kopi’s inscription means two different inscriptions, both found in this place in the village of Kampung Muara near Bogor, in the Indonesian province of West Java: * The first, also called “Tapak Gajah” (“fingerprints”) “elephant”), was discovered in 1864, during a clearing to create a coffee plantation, kebon kopi in Malay, hence its name. It consists of a stone on which are engraved elephant footprints and a text in Pallava alphabet from South India, and in Sanskrit: “Jayavisalasya Tarumendrasya hastinahAirwavatabhasya vibhatidam padadvayam” which means: “Here is drawn a pair of footsteps Similar to Airawata, the great lord of Taruma and (?) victory “. This inscription is dated around the year 450 and attributed to King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara. * The second, also called “Batu Dakon” (“Conglak-shaped stone”), dated 932 and written in Malay, mentions a “Sunda king”.

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Behistun’s Inscription

The inscription of Behistun (or Behistun or Bisistun) is a monumental inscription describing the conquests of Darius in three languages: Old Persian, Elamite and Akkadian. The text is engraved in an escarpment of Mount Behistun, in the province of Kermanshah of present-day Iran. She was deciphered by Henry Rawlinson. The latter began his research in 1835 and needed more than a decade to complete his translation, which was published in London in 1846. The inscription of Behistun is cuneiform writing what the Rosetta stone is to the Egyptian hieroglyphs: the most crucial document in the decipherment of this writing.

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Seven-pointed sword

The seven-pointed sword (, Shichishitō or Nanatsusaya no Tachi), is a continental-made iron sword believed to be identical to the artifact of that name, a gift of the King of Baekje to a leader of the Yamato era and mentioned in the Nihon Shoki during the fifty-second year of the reign of the semi-mythical Empress Jingu. Long in length, it carries six branch-like projections along the central blade. The original sword has been preserved since ancient times at Isonokami-jingū in Nara Prefecture, Japan, and is not exposed to the public. An inscription on the side of the blade is an important source for understanding the relations between the kingdoms of the Korean peninsula and Japan at this time.

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Xiping Stone Classics

The Xiping Stone Classics (Chinese: 熹平 石 经) are the Seven Confucian Classics whose text has been engraved on steles in Luoyang, capital of the later Han. These Classics are the Classics of Mutations, the Classics of Worms, the Classics of Documents, the Annals of Spring and Autumn with the, the Classical of Rites, the Conversations of Confucius. The enterprise was ordered in 175 by the Emperor Lingdi and was completed in 183. The text was established by Cai Yong and was engraved on forty-six stelae, in the style of lishu calligraphy. There are only fragments left. About 200,000 characters were engraved on both sides of these forty-six steles. The National Library of China keeps some fragments.

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Claros, in ancient Greek, Latin Clarus, is a city, important oracular sanctuary dedicated to Apollo on the territory of the city of Colophon in Ionia (Asia Minor).

The archaeological excavations have cleared various buildings and especially a large number of Greek inscriptions with a strong historical interest and some of which are still unpublished. Several of these inscriptions shed light on the relations between Rome and the Greek cities, others testify to the functioning of the sanctuary and the consultations of the oracle. Several inscriptions giving the text of oracles made by Apollo to Claros have been found in other Greek cities, they often date from our era and many of them were intended to fight against a plague epidemic. They have often been compared with the antonine plague. The names of the great epigraphist and historian Louis Robert and his wife Jeanne Robert remain attached to the excavation of Claros and the study of inscriptions concerning the sanctuary. In Claros, the oracles were rendered by the Bakids, male characters, as opposed to the oracles of the Sibyls or Pythias, female characters.

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Cippus Abellanus

The Cippus Abellanus is a stele engraved with inscriptions in the Oscan language discovered on the site of the ancient city of Abella (Avella today) in 1745 (it was then used as a door base). It is believed that the inscriptions date from the end of these inscriptions use the Etruscan alphabet, which will itself be accommodated by the Romans to create the Latin alphabet. It is an agreement marking the boundaries between the cities of Abella and Nola at the height of a temple, set by Q. Fabius Labienus in 183 BC. J. – C. following a dispute. The stone is 192 cm high by 55 wide and 27 thick. It is now preserved in the archaeological museum of Nola. In Latin, the word cippus (equivalent to the Greek stêlê) most often refers to a pillar-shaped post on which information about the boundaries of a territory or its extent (this territory is indicated by the words slaagid-slagím and has recently been associated with a toponym still alive.The Cippus Abellanus corresponds only partially to this description because it is not cylindrical or cubic, but flat with two engraved sides (like the cippus of Perugia). the most important testimony of the osque language that came to us with Tabula Bantina.

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Cippes of Melqart

The Melqart cippes are two marble cippes unearthed in Malta, at the end of. The bilingual inscriptions engraved on their base, in ancient Greek and Phoenician, are at the origin of the deciphering of the Phoenician.

The two cippes date from; of Phoenician origin, these objects serve as funerary monuments and censer bollards. Made of white marble, the cippes have a candelabra shape, thin and narrow, decorated at their base with carved acanthus leaves, resting on a molded parallelepiped base. The pedestals bear a bilingual inscription on one of their faces, in ancient Greek and Phoenician, describing their dedication as ex-voto by two brothers,’Abdosir and ‘Osirchamar, to Melqart, deity of Tire identified by syncretism with Hercules.

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The chronogram (or sometimes chronograph) is an inscription in prose or verse whose letters corresponding to numbers in a literal type numeration system (such as Greek literal numeration, Arabic numeral numeration or Hebrew numeral, etc.) allow to form the date of an event. Roman numerals having been confused with letters, they were also used as well (M = 1000, D = 500, C = 100, L = 50, X = 10, V = 5, I = 1). In a pure chronogram each word contains a number; a natural chronogram gives all the figures in the correct order, for example “aMore MatVrItas” = MMVI = 2006. Until then, the chronograms were very popular, especially in Germany and the Austrian Netherlands.

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Canadian Center for Epigraphic Documents

The Canadian Center for Epigraphic Documents (CESC) was established in February 2010 as a non-profit organization to archive, catalog and digitize epigraphic documents. The center’s team is composed entirely of professional volunteers and graduate computer science students.

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Stele of Avile Tite

The stele of Avile Tite is a monumental stele, carved in limestone from high dating from 550 BC. Circa BC, preserved at the Guarnacci Museum in Volterra.

The monumental stele, dating from 550 BC J. – C., came to us in two fragments. It represents a warrior in bas-relief bearing a speaking inscription which carries the name in the form “I [am] of Avile Tites, … uchsie mi ha donato”, according to a typology typical of Northern-Tyrrhenian Etruria with Greco-Oriental influences. The warrior, to whom is dedicated the funeral stele, is represented completely armed and turned in profile to the left with the legs apart. He wears a short tunic, a cuirass, shoulders (protection of the shoulders) and cnemides (protection of the shins). He is armed with a spear and a dagger, a double-edged sword with a curved blade. The body is in profile like the face with a pointed beard, hair in stairs, the eye lying down and the lips sketching a smile. The style is characterized by the taste of monumental and full forms, typical of pure ionic style. The “lazalic” type of hair reflects the provincial environment of the warrior in a fashion that was to be common at the time.

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Zhang Zhung

In historical sources and medieval Tibetan legends, Zhang Zhung, Shang Shoung or Shang Shung () is the name of a kingdom occupying the current Ngari Prefecture, west of the Tibet Autonomous Region, in the People’s Republic of China. China, which was militarily conquered by the Tibetan Empire (629 – 877) at, under the reign of Songtsen Gampo. It is called Yangtong () or Xiangxiong () in Chinese sources. The tradition of the Shamanic religion Bonpo claims that it is from here that came the Bon Yungdrung, precursor of Tibetan Buddhism after syncretism with Buddhism. In the long history of rivalry between the bonpo and Buddhist religions, the kingdom occupies the symbolic place of the “other Tibet”, opposed to the Tibetan empire. Due to geographical, cultural and political barriers, archaeological exploration of western Tibet began timidly less than twenty years ago. His promising discoveries have encouraged the Tibetan Academy of Social Sciences to join the research in recent years.

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Xituanshan Culture (西 团 山) is a Bronze Age culture from Jilin Province in northeastern China. It extends into the Second Songhua Valley on the territory of present-day Changchun and Jilin Towns between the Weihuling Mountains and the Lalinhe, East Liaohe and Yitonghe Rivers. It was divided into three periods: the old phase (Western Zhou period, -1046 to -771), the middle phase (Spring and Autumn period, -771 to -481/453) and the late phase (Kingdom period fighters, -481/453 to -221). One of its features is the stone rockstone tombs that serve only one person. It is also remarkable for its three-foot vases of type ding and li that denote relations with the central plains of China. The villages are located near the rivers on low terraces. The houses are 25 to 40 m², are semi-buried and have a rectangular fireplace. Their walls are stone or covered with mud.

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Superior Xiajiadian culture

The culture of Upper Xiajiadian, in northeastern China, is an archeological culture of nomadic pastoralists at a time when North China was expanding in the Bronze Age. The site has several archaeological levels, including the lower level (2000-1500 BCE) and the upper level (1000-300 BCE), which derives from the bronze tradition of the Eurasian steppe and the Andronovo culture. The eponymous site is located in Chifeng Prefecture in Inner Mongolia. It is marked by the adoption of the horse which pushes this initially sedentary people towards nomadism.

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Lower Xiajiadian culture

The lower Xiajiadian culture is a Bronze Age archaeological culture in northeastern China dating from about 2000 to 1400 BCE. The eponymous site is located in Chifeng Prefecture in Inner Mongolia.

This culture succeeds Hongshan culture through Xiaoheyan’s transitional culture. After the cultivation of the lower Xiajiadian, from 1000, it gives way to the nomads of the culture of the upper Xiajiadian.

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Windmill Hill culture

The Windmillians are a people settled in England and Ireland around 3800 To 3300 they are at the origin of the Windmill-Hill civilization, building long tumuli (long-barrows), ceremonial paths (cursus) and ditch camps interrupted (“henges” with narrow ditches north of the Thames and “henges” with wide ditches to the south).

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Wielbark Culture

The Wielbark culture takes its name from a village where the Germans discovered in 1873 a cemetery of more than 3000 tombs, attributed to the Gothic and Gépides peoples. Unfortunately, many of the stones in this cemetery have been moved and several burials damaged. The report of the first excavations, lost during the Second World War, was only found in 2004, and is about to be analyzed by a team of Polish researchers from Danzig, Warsaw, Krakow and Lublin.

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Culture of Vinča

The culture of Vinča, also known as Turdaş culture or Turdaş-Vinča culture, is a European Neolithic culture located in the Balkans and dated from 5700 to 4500. It owes its name to the site of Vinča-Belo brdo or Vinča, located about twenty kilometers southeast of Belgrade, on the banks of the Danube in Serbia. This archeological culture, which succeeds the Starčevo culture, is considered an important milestone in the context of the typical European Neolithic cultures. It marks a period of demographic prosperity in the region, thanks to a more developed practice of agriculture. There are many well-organized villages, pottery, anthropomorphic or zoomorphic clay figurines, and artifacts with many signs that could form the oldest known proto-script. The Vinča culture is still Neolithic and is not considered part of the copper age proper, but the oldest known traces of copper metallurgy have been discovered in this culture. However, the tools are still mostly cut or polished stone or bone. More recently, the oldest bronze objects of the world have also been discovered.

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Culture of Villanova

Villanova or Villanovian culture is the term used by archaeologists to designate an Iron Age culture occupying the space on which the future Etruria will be formed, which is already clearly drawn at the beginning of the. These archaeologists named it after the name of a major archaeological site, Villanova di Castenaso, located in the Bologna region, discovered in 1853.

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Culture of Veloucha-Porodin

The Velucha-Porodin culture is a prehistoric culture that existed on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia in the Neolithic. It is a peripheral culture of the Balkan-Anatolian ensemble that has evolved in a particular way. It appeared in Pelagonia, an isolated plain in the south-west of the country and is named after two sites, Velusha (Macedonian Velusha) and Porodin (Porodin), located on the banks of the Tsrna River. the culture appears towards 5500 BC. J.-C and known four phases (Veloucha-Porodin I-IV). The houses of the culture have a rectangular plan or more rarely trapezoidal, walls in wattling and a ground covered with agile. Few stone tools have been found because they are mostly made of bone, and the sepulchral rites are very little known. The pottery is most often spherical with an elongated collar, red color and decorated with triangle patterns of white paint. We also found terracotta altars and very special statuettes, the magna mater, small figures of houses with a woman’s body in place of the fireplace. Finally, culture is characterized by the production of many figurines with elongated necks, sometimes sitting. Phase I is characterized by connective footware and “3” ornaments, which are also found during Phase II. Bands and ovals are particular phases III and IV. Phase IV is distinguished by clay patterns added to the walls. Magna mater were mainly produced during Phase III.

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The Vasconian is a facies of the final Mousterian characterized by the presence of choppers. It was defined by François Bordes from industries in southwestern France and northern Spain.

The Vasconian was defined by F. Bordes in 1953: We forge this new term for a very special facies of the Mousterian, the one that is found in Basque Country at the shelter Olha (lower layer) and Castillo (alpha layer, upper) . It is characterized by the presence of choppers on chips, or shards Olha, form frequent in Africa, but that we do not know in France north of Sauveterre-la-Lémance. According to F. Bordes, this facies has characteristics close to a Charentien type Quina, with a low scraper index, denticulates relatively numerous, a Levallois debitage use and especially the presence of choppers: It is as if an industry of Castillo-beta type had received a transient infusion of Levallois technique and African typology. The presence of choppers in the Mousterian Basque Country and the Cantabrian Mountains therefore has a cultural significance for F. Bordes and reflects contacts with North Africa. The presence of Vasconian has been proposed for sites in Cantabria such as Cueva Morin, Castillo (dates of – 43.3 ± 2.9 ka and – 39.3 ± 1.5 ka by C14 SMA), the Pendo and Pyrénées-Atlantiques such as Isturitz and the Olha shelter.

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Valorguien is a cultural facies of the Epipaleolithic. Formerly known as Provençal Romanell, it is homologous to the Azilian (curved backed slats) but differs in particular by the absence of harpoon. It was defined by Max Escalon de Fonton from the Valorgues shelter industry, located in the town of Saint-Quentin-la-Poterie. It covers the coast of eastern Languedoc (eponymous site) and western Provence (in the Bouches-du-Rhône, sites of Saint-Marcel in the municipality of Marseille, shelter Cornille and shelter Capeau on the town d’Istres, the Arnoux shelter in the municipality of Saint-Chamas and Marcouline in the town of Cassis) and the Lower Rhone (site of the Granges des Merveilles II in the town of Rochefort-du-Gard in the Gard ). The Valorguian is dated for millennia and is located in the climatic phase of Bölling-Alleröd. It then gives way to the cultural facies of Montadien. Continue reading “Valorguien”


Utina (also known as Agua Dulce) is the name of a Native American chieftain living in North Florida and present-day Georgia. This tribe is closely related to that of the Acueras living further inland and that of the Utinahicas.

The Utinas formed a linguistic tribe Mocama and the Timucua Nation. The Utinas were in conflict with the neighboring tribes Saturiwas and Tacatacurus, both from the same Mocama language family. The Utinas lived on the banks of the Saint Johns River and present-day Palatka and up to George Lake in the Ocala area.

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Urewe is the name of the site in Kenya whose publication of archaeological material by Mary Leakey in 1948 has made this culture known. It refers to the Early Iron Age phase in the Great Lakes region of East Central Africa, around Lake Victoria.

This culture appears in the region at the passage of the II to the millenium and it seems to have remained in some places far into the millennium Its widest expansion, linked to an important metallurgical activity of the iron, is in the first six centuries, since the region from Kivu (Democratic Republic of Congo) in the west to Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, northwestern Tanzania, and southwestern Kenya.

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Culture of Unétice

The ” Unetice Culture ” is a group from the Early Bronze Age of Central Europe (circa 2300 BC – circa 1600 BC).

The Bronze Age appears in Central Europe with Unétice culture, sometimes incorrectly called Unétice civilization, around 2300 BC. J. – C. – 1600 av. The eponymous city of Únětice is located northwest of Prague in Bohemia (Czech Republic). In Bohemia, the culture of Unétice follows the campaniforme culture and precedes the cultivation of tumuli (Middle Bronze Age). Although posterior to the campaniform culture, the culture of Unétice does not derive from it. According to the chronology of the ancient Bronze established by Paul Reinecke, there are two periods:

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Culture of Tsaroubintsy

The Tsarubintsy or Zarubinets culture flourished from north to north of the Black Sea, from the upper and middle Dnieper Valley and the Pripiat Valley to the south of the Bug Valley to the west. The archaeological sites of Tsaroubintsy are particularly numerous between the valleys of the Desna and the Ros, as well as on the edge of the Pripyat. They were described in 1899 by the Czech-Ukrainian archaeologist V. V. Chvojka, and this culture, now attested by 500 excavation sites, takes its name from a village on the banks of the Dnieper where funeral urns were exhumed. The Tsarubintsy culture is generally associated with the Proto-Slavs.

The culture of Tsarubintsy was composite, influenced at the same time by the German-Celtic settlers of the La Tene civilization (Bastarnae and Skires in particular) and nomads of the steppes (Scythians and Sarmatians). The influence of the steppe peoples is particularly evident in the field of ceramics, armaments, household utensils and personal effects. In, this culture was swept away by the Goths and supplanted by the culture of Chernyakov.

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Tsaparang is the capital of the ancient kingdom of Guge which extended in the valley of Garuda, where the high Sutlej flows. It is located in Zanda Xian, Ngari Prefecture, in the western part of Tibet Autonomous Region, China. It is east of Ali (Shiquanhe) and west of Tholing Monastery and close to Mount Kailash, Lake Manasarovar and the Ladakh border. It is not far from the monastery of Gurugem (Bön).

Tsaparang is a vast fortress perched on a pyramid-shaped rock from a height of 150 to 200 m in front of a long and narrow spur. It includes many tunnels and caves that have been carved into the rock. At its base was a small town. Above were two public temples – the Lhakhang Marpo (“the red chapel”) and the Lhakhang Karpo (“the white chapel”) – and the monastic quarters. Higher up, at the end of a staircase dug in a tunnel, were the royal quarters, and at the very top, the summer palace.

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Tianshanbeilu (this site being located on one of the Silk Roads) is a site (circa 2000-1550 BCE) of the Bronze Age beginnings in the East of what is now the Autonomous Region Uyghur of Xinjiang. Its role has been essential as a place of passage and exchange between the cultures of the West, South Siberia and Central Asia, with populations living further east like those of the Hexi and Gansu Corridors, which were in contact with the Chinese cultures of the central plain of northern China today, Siba and Qijia among others, and with the populations of North and Northeast: culture of Zhukaigou on the Ordos plateau in Inner Mongolia and lower Xiajiadian culture.

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Thule culture

The members of the Thule culture are the ancestors of all current Canadian Inuit. They arrived in Alaska around the year 500, then in Nunavut around the year one thousand and one group then emigrated to Greenland. The links between Thule culture and the Inuit are biological, cultural and linguistic. They owe their name to the locality of Thule, north-west Greenland, now moved to Qaanaaq, where archaeological remains were found for the first time, locality itself named by the Danes in reference to the semi island – Thule legendary mentioned by the Greek explorer Pytheas in the far north of the known world. Apart from possible contacts with the Vikings, they were in contact with the peoples of Eurasia (we found and objects of metals from Asia, such as a belt can be used for horses, in a village of Cape Espenberg of the Seward Peninsula, present-day Alaska)). They then came into closer contact with the Europeans at.

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Terramare, Terramara or Terremare is a term for a complex technology dating back to the Middle and Late Bronze Age (1700-1150 BC), mainly established in the Po Valley in Emilia, Italy. North . It takes its name from the residue of mounds “black earth” of the colony. Terramare is terra marna, “Marne-terre”, where marls are a lacustrine deposit. It can be of any color, but in farmland it is more generally black. The population of the terramare sites is called “terramaricoli”. The sites were searched exhaustively between 1860-1910.

The Terramares were incineration peoples (several fields of funerary urns were found) of the Bronze Age.

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Culture of Chernyakhov

The culture of Chernyakhov is a pre-Slavic culture that developed from Belarus to Moldova through Ukraine. The eponymous site is the village of Chernyakhov in Kiev Oblast in Ukraine, excavated in the early years of the. Around the year 300, this civilization spread to Romania where it is found as the Sânta-Ana culture of Mureş. Its existence is attested by a thousand archaeological sites.

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The Tardenoisien (sometimes called Beuronien) designates mesolithic industries with numerous microliths in the shape of trapezium. Its name is linked to the Tardenois region and was discovered in 1885 by Émile Taté in Coincy in Aisne. It is best known in the center and north of the Paris Basin but similar crops are also known in Central and Eastern Europe (complex or late north-west Pontic), as well as in southern Great Britain (Horsham points) then connected to the mainland by the Doggerland. It occupies all the Mesolithic until the beginning of the Neolithic period, between -5500 (certain continental regions) and -4500 (British Isles), variable according to the region. The recent Sauveterrian with trapezius of South-West France, which succeeds the classic Sauveterrien, was formerly described as tardenoisien or tardenoid. This microlithic industry known in the deposits of Martinet and Cuzoul de Gramat could correspond to the beginnings of the Neolithic.


The Tacatacuru tribe is a chieftaincy of the Timucua Nation settled on Cumberland Island and part of the coast of Georgia. The Tacatacuru were the Amerindian allies of the French during the founding of the French Florida colony in.

The tribe Tacatacuru composes with the tribe Saturiwa the linguistic group of Mocama which is a linguistic subgroup Timucua. These two tribes, allied with the French were in conflict with the Utina tribe allied with the Spaniards, itself a member of the same linguistic group of the Mocama. The Tacatacurus were distributed in small communities from Cumberland Island and the Georgian coast to the northern limit of the Saint Marys River to the south. In 1562, French explorers who discovered them settled at the mouth of the Seine River (Saint Marys), the Tacatacurus lived in small communities spread along the Atlantic coast.

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Culture of Srubna

The Srubna culture, also referred to as the Russian (and, Ukrainian:), Soubrnaya culture and Srubnik culture cultivation is a Middle Bronze Age culture and attested to ( even between). This culture succeeds the Yamna culture and the Poltavka culture. It occupied the northern region along the northern shore of the Black Sea from the east of the Dnieper all the way to the foot of the Caucasus, a region adjoining the northern shore of the Caspian Sea to the west of the Ural Mountains meeting the area. more or less contemporary of the Andronovo culture which is somewhat connected to it. The name comes from Russian (srub), “structure of wood”, which is the way the tombs were built. Parts of animals were buried with the body.

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Culture of Sintashta

The culture of Sintashta, also known as the Sintashta-Petrovka culture or the Sintashta-Arkaïm culture, is a Bronze Age archeological culture from the northern Eurasian steppe on the southern slopes of the Urals in Russia, dated from the period 2100-1800 BCE The oldest light-weight battle tanks (with two spoked wheels) were found in the tombs of Sintashta, and the culture is considered a serious candidate for the origin of this technology, which extended through the old world and played an important role in the ancient war. The Sintashta settlements are also notable for the intensity of copper mining and bronze metallurgy that is carried out, which is unusual for a steppe culture. Due to the difficulty of identifying the remains of existing Sintashta sites under the remnants of later crops that were established on the same sites, the crop was only recently distinguished from the Andronovo crop. It is now recognized as a separate entity forming part of the “Andronovo Horizon”.

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Culture Seine-Oise-Marne

The Seine-Oise-Marne culture, also known as S.O.M. (or SOM), is a prehistoric culture that developed in the Neolithic and early Chalcolithic, mainly in the Paris Basin.

The Seine-Oise-Marne culture has been named because of the numerous archaeological discoveries made in the Paris Basin (the Seine, Oise and Marne basins). but this crop has spread far beyond, throughout northwestern France and southern Belgium. This culture is the. Indeed, the elements that appear in the north of France in the middle of the do not present anywhere else in association, and seem to testify to a genesis on the spot. The associated chronology is very variable according to the authors especially as it was able to persist locally up to the average bronze, especially in Belgium. ” Persistence of the Seine-Oise-Marne civilization in the Bronze Age in certain regions of France. Belgium ”, excerpt from the article:. The Seine-Oise-Marne culture is contemporary with the culture of corded ceramics stretching from the East of France to Russia, with which it shares enough common cultural elements so that we can consider the first as a subset of the second.

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The Sauveterrian term refers to hypermicrolithic mesolithic industries (with very small microliths, or mesolithic arrowheads). It was created in 1928 by Laurent Coulonges to name the industries discovered between the Azilien and the Tardenoisien in the shelter of Martinet, in Sauveterre-la-Lémance (Lot-et-Garonne). It is generally between 9000 and 6500 BP.There are several variants of the Sauveterrien, interpreted differently according to the authors: Sauveterrian trapezoids, Sauveterrien des Causses, Montclusien … For J.-G. Rozoy, these facies have a cultural significance and correspond to contemporary groups, occupying distinct geographical areas. Mr. Barbaza and N. Valdeyron proposed a “reunited model” contradicting the “Rozoy model”. For these authors, the different Sauveterrian variants correspond to the same cultural current covering the whole South-West of France. The Montclusien would be an evolutionary stage of Sauveterrien preceding the recent Sauveterrian trapezium.

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The Saturiwa tribe (also called Saturioua, Satourioua or Saturiba) is a Timucua Nation chiefdom located on the banks of the Saint Johns River in Florida. The Saturiwa were the Amerindian allies of the French during the founding of the French Florida colony in.

The Saturiwa tribe composes with the Tacatacuru tribe the Mocama linguistic group which is a Timucua linguistic subgroup. These two tribes, allied with the French were in conflict with the Utina tribe allied with the Spaniards, itself a member of the same linguistic group of the Mocama. The Saturiwas were divided into small communities from the Saint Marys River in the north to Saint Augustine in the south. According to the French explorers who discovered them in 1562, the Saturiwas lived in about thirty villages spread along the Atlantic coast.

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Culture of Saqqaq

The culture of Saqqaq (or Saqqaquien, or culture of Sarqaq) is a prehistoric culture of Greenland. It developed over the period between 2500 and With that of Independence I (2400 -), Saqqaquien is one of the two oldest known archaeological cultures in Greenland. It owes its name to the establishment of Saqqaq (or), in the northern part of Disko Bay, place of many discoveries and archaeological excavations. The Saqqaq culture, part of the so-called ensemble, was introduced and defined in the 1950s by Danish archaeologist Jørgen Meldgaard.

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The Sanxingdui culture () dates back to the period from 2800 to 800 BC. The Sanxingdui archaeological site is located in Guanghan City, about Chengdu in Sichuan Province, China. The objects found on the spot astonished the archaeologists because their style was completely different from the Chinese art of the same period. Sanxingdui’s artifacts date from the Bronze Age and demonstrate a technique of working and casting of advanced bronze for the time. This civilization seems to have lasted about 2000 years and disappeared suddenly for reasons still unknown. To date more than 10,000 objects in bronze, gold, jade, bone, or ivory have been found. The Sanxingdui culture seems to be contemporary to the Shang Dynasty, which developed a completely different technique of making bronze. Strangely, this culture was never directly mentioned by Chinese historians, nor does there exist any writings that clarify its nature.

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The Sadlermiuts, Sallirmiuts or Sagdlirmiuts were an Inuit group that inhabited the Southampton Islands (Salliq Island in Inuktitut, hence the name Sallirmiuts), Coats and Walrus located in Hudson Bay in Canada. The main settlement is Coral Harbor, which is named Salliq in modern Inuktitut and was formerly called Sadlerk, hence the name Sadlermiuts. They are often considered to be the last remaining representatives of Dorset culture as they have maintained a distinct Inuit culture and dialect of the continent. However, in fact, their culture and traditions seem to be more of a combination of elements from the Dorset and Thule cultures.

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Culture of Przeworsk

The Przeworsk culture is a proto-historical archeological culture of the Iron Age located mainly in the center and south of present-day Poland and extending from to. It takes its name from the city of Przeworsk in the region from which the first artefacts of this culture were recognized. Among the Germanic archaeological cultures the Przeworsk culture is notable for its great coherence, the size of the space occupied and the duration during which it is attested.

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Prenuragic culture

The preneuragic culture is a period in the history of Sardinia that precedes, as its name suggests, the nuragic age, which is characteristic of the island. It is composed of several civilizations that will, over the ages, allow the establishment of Nuragic culture.

During this period (-6000 to -4000), the man lives in caves (cave of Santo Stephano in the archipelago of the Maddalena, or the green cave of Alghero for example), and practice mainly the picking and the hunting but also agriculture. Through the remains of this period, and particularly the ceramic objects decorated with a cardium shell, it was possible to determine the presence of exchange with other peoples of the western Mediterranean, which has allowed, in addition to trade, cultural and religious exchanges. From then on, Filiestru’s men use caves as graves. The trade revolves around the obsidian of Monte Arci which is supplied in the countries of the Mediterranean basin. At this time, men already consume the fruits of Pistachio lentiscus.

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Ceramic of the Jomon period

The is a type of ceramic made during the Jōmon period (approximately from 13000 until 300 BCE) in the history of Japan. The term “Jōmon” (縄 文) characterizes this period with a typical ceramics print, or string decoration, which was discovered in 1877 by the American archaeologist Edward Sylvester Morse. Since this first discovery, the specific features of the period have been established, the chronology specified by numerous excavations scattered throughout the territory and with the commitment of the population. Over this very long period a multitude of forms and decorative processes have been produced in the islands of Japan, with differences often very important, or less between North and South.

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The Potanos are an Amerindian tribe who lived in north-central Florida at the time of the arrival of Europeans at. The Potanos Territory extended over Alachua County, Marion County and western Putnam County upstream of the Saint Johns River.

The Potanos were part of the Mocamas language group and were members of the Timucua Nation. Their dialect is part of the Timucua language family.

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Polada culture

The Polada culture developed in the early Bronze Age during the end of and around the beginning of (around 2200-1600 BC) throughout Northern Italy, especially in Lombardy, Veneto and Trentin.

The Polada culture has some similarities with the campaniform culture like the use of the bow and the control of the metallurgy. Apart from this, the Polada culture does not correspond to the campaniform culture nor to Remedello’s previous cultures. According to Barfield, the appearance of the Polada facies is related to the movement of new populations from southern Germany and Switzerland. Many similarities are also found in the initial phase of the Bonnanaro culture which spreads in Sardinia at the same time. Poladian influences are also found in the early Bronze Age cultures of Liguria, Romagna, Corsica and the South of France. In an archeological site near Solferino was found the oldest known horse to date in Italy from the Polada culture.

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Culture of the bronze dagger

The bronze dagger culture in Liaoning and Korea is an archeological complex from the late Bronze Age in the space that covers the present-day Manchuria and Korea, from about 800 BCE to 200 AD. Many bronze objects such as jewelery, musical instruments and mirrors or weapons characterize this culture, but swords, short swords, daggers (about 30 cm long, without handle but with a part, to the base, which allows to fix a handle) and daggers are the most characteristic. The current state of archaeological discoveries makes it possible to distinguish the two regions because of their specific characteristics.

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Period of archaic dynasties

The period of archaic dynasties (abbreviated DA) is a phase of the history of Mesopotamia, sometimes also called “archaic dynastic”, “proto-dynastic” or “pre-argonic”. It lasts about 2900 BC BC, until around 2340, date of the unification of the region by Sargon of Akkad. Succeeding the Uruk period, which saw the formation of the first states, the first cities, and the invention of writing, this epoch is characterized by the existence of states that are still underdeveloped and small, designated as ” city-states “. Their structures are consolidated over time, until the end of the period that is marked by the constitution of the Akkad Empire. From a cultural point of view, these different political entities are relatively homogeneous, participating in a brilliant civilization that radiates over a large part of the Middle East. The cities of the land of Sumer (Uruk, Ur, Lagash, Umma, Nippur, etc.), situated at the extreme south of Mesopotamia, are the most influential; they are bordered on the north by kingdoms of Semitic settlement covering a large part of Mesopotamia and Syria (Kish, Mari, Nagar, Ebla, etc.). Priority has long been given to studies on southern and central Mesopotamia, regions known since the end of the century by texts and art through the excavations of several sites (first Girsu, but also Tell Asmar, Khafadje, Ur, etc.). Then the analysis of this period has gradually expanded to neighboring regions, including Southwest Iran, Upper Mesopotamia and especially Syria, increasingly well known for thirty years thanks to the archives of Ebla. This makes it possible to take into account the developments that are also taking place there and that tend to relativize the traditional vision centered on Mesopotamia. The latter is not a region isolated by its complex political and social structures or its writing system, because other neighboring regions share common features with it and participate in material and immaterial exchange circuits covering all the Middle East.

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Erligang period

The Erligang period (or Erligang culture), circa 1580 – 1400/1300 before the common era, is a phase of China’s Protohistory, which follows the culture of Erlitou (v 1900-1500) in Henan. Some archaeologists consider it one of the first “civilizations”, if not the first, in China. It may be a period of “statehood” in the Yellow River Valley and much further south. And its radiation corresponds to the intense development of bronze metallurgy, characteristic of ancient China. It owes its name to the site Erligang, cleared from 1951 in a suburb – Erligang – Zhengzhou City, Henan, where were identified the first traces of this culture. Then many sites were cleared, dating from the following period, or middle phase of Erligang, in an area extended to much of the Central Plain of China, and into the Middle Yangzi Valley. And the major site of this period has been cleared under the current city of Zhengzhou, so close to the eponymous site of the period: it was for the time a huge city and fortified. The decline of Erligang manifests itself rapidly during the final phase, around 1300 BCE.

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Civilization of oppida

The civilization of oppida is a Celtic civilization that existed between them, either on the eve of the Gallic Wars. The term was coined by the French archaeologist Joseph Déchelette, to define the cultural unity of the Celtic peoples on the European continent, on a territory going from the south of England to the central Europe. Category: Celtic world oppida

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Nok (culture)

Nok’s culture appears in northern Nigeria towards undefined undefined and suddenly disappears, for unknown reasons, in the vicinity of It is thought that it is the heir to an ancestral nation that would have branched out to give birth to the Hausa peoples , Gbagyi, Birom, Kanouri, Nupe and Jukun. The Kwatarkwashi culture or Sokoto culture, located northwest of Nok, is supposed to be identical or to be the ancestor of the Nok culture. The social system of Nok’s culture seems to have been highly advanced. She is considered the oldest producer of terracotta sculptures close to the actual size. There are sculptures representing horsemen on horseback, which indicates that the Nok culture knew this animal, perhaps from North Africa. The work of iron, cast iron and forging, appears in the Nok culture to undefined undefined undefined, but it is possible that it is even older. suggested that iron smelting has been practiced in the region as early as before undefined undefined undefined

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The Natufian is the name given to a culture of the final Epipaleolithic, attested in the Levant between 12500 and 10000 BC. J.-C. and characterized by the first sedentary experiences.

The Natufian is a Middle Eastern culture whose sites have been discovered in the regions bordering the Mediterranean coast of Asia (especially near Mount Carmel and in the Negev). More precisely in the region extending south of the Taurus to Sinai. The eponymous site is Ouadi en Natouf in the West Bank. The first testimonies of the Natufian culture were discovered there by the British archaeologist Dorothy Garrod, in 1928.

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Period of Mumun ceramics

The period of the Mumun ceramics, (the ceramic without decoration) is a period of prehistory in Korea ranging approximately from 1500 to 300 BCE (AEC). It is often referred to as the Korean Bronze Age as bronze production begins between the AEC and the AEC. It is partly contemporary with the “Bronze Dagger Culture” (between the AEC and the EC), which ends with the Iron Age in Korea and the kingdom of Gojoseon. This civilization is marked by a strong development of agriculture, particularly the cultivation of irrigated rice which is practiced intensely from the classical Mumun, and a hierarchical society reported by the construction of many dolmens. It takes its name from the lack of decoration in its pottery and follows the period of ceramic Chulmun, much more decorated. vignette | 300px | Mumun sites in South Korea

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The Montadian is a cultural facies of the Mesolithic Provencal. It was defined in 1954 by the prehistorian Max Escalon de Fonton. It is illustrated by several sites in the Bouches-du-Rhône as those of the cave of the Montade (eponymous site in the town of Plan-de-Cuques), shelter Cornille (commune of Istres) where he succeeds to Valorguien, Long Balsam in Ponteau (municipality of Martigues), Mourre-Poussiou (commune of Fos-sur-Mer) and the shelter of the oxen (commune of Ventabren). The Montadian is to be placed mainly in the X millennium and is located in the climatic phases of Dryas III and Preboreal. He succeeds Valorguien.

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The Mocama people are a group of Native Americans who lived in North Florida and Georgia from 2500 BC until the arrival of the first Europeans.

The Mocamas formed a dialect group within the Timucua linguistic family. The Mocama people were made up of different chieftaincies and lived in many villages. Among the main Mocamas communities were the Saturiwas, Tacatacurus, Utinas and Potanos. The Mocamas lived on the banks of the Saint Johns River, on the present city of Palatka and as far as George Lake in the Ocala region. Their territory covered northern Florida and part of Georgia.

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