The Arzawa (ancient Arzawiya form) is a kingdom and region of Western Anatolia whose history is known only to external sources, mainly from the neighboring kingdom of the Hittites, who have repeatedly fought in this region. The exact location of Arzawa is still debated. It is located in southwestern Anatolia, between Lycia and Lydia posterior. It could have been extended to the Aegean Sea. The Arzawa is undoubtedly a realm of Luvite culture, as evidenced by the names of people from this country and the fact that it worshiped the gods of Latvia, such as Arma (the Moon) and Tarhunda (god of the Thunderstorm). The first historical attestation of the kingdom of Arzawa dates from the reign of Hattushili, around 1650 BC.
A conflict opposes it to its western neighbor, who is already a great power. Taking advantage of the weakening of the Hittite kingdom during the reign of Zidanta I (around 1550 BC), the kings of Arzawa expanded their territory. When the Hittite kingdom became a great power from the reign of Tudhaliya, the Arzawa is a source of great troubles for him, as the region of Western Anatolia, where the Ahhiyawa (Achaeans?), Begin to pose the foot. We learn that a local vassal Hittite ruler, Madduwatta, provoked the king of Arzawa, Kupanta-Kurunta, who defeated him. The two will eventually make peace later, much to the chagrin of Tudhaliya I who has a bad eye on his vassal ally with his enemy. Tudhaliya II fights in turn in Arzawa, without much success. This kingdom is at its peak, while the Hatti is lost in dynastic quarrels. The new king of Arzawa, Tarhundaradu, took the opportunity to take the Hittite Lowlands, then made contact with Pharaoh Akhenaten, to whom he wrote two letters in Hittite in which he explains that the Hittite kingdom is about to disappear and, by reason of his new power, he demands a matrimonial alliance with Egypt. But the Hittites are far from saying their last word: Suppiluliuma restores the situation among the Hittites, and wins a victory against the Arzawa. This is not enough, however, and the new king of Arzawa, Utta-ziti, manages to build a coalition against the Hatti with the help of Ahhiyawa. The Hittite king Mursili II, son of Suppiluliuma, then mounted a great expedition that took two years to beat the Arzawa, taking its capital, Apasa (Ephesus?) And to submit all provinces around. According to Mursili, 65,000 inhabitants of Arzawa are deported to the Hittite country. The country of Arzawa is then divided between the ancient vassals of Utta-ziti, the kingdoms of Hapalla, Mira-Kuwaliya and the Seha River Country, which pass into the Hittite orbit by signing treaties of vassalage with Mursili. We do not know exactly what happens to the Arzawa itself; the kingdom of Mira could have recovered the regions that constituted the heart. Having become a vassal of the Hatti kingdom, we know that a group of Arzawa warriors was present at the Battle of Qadesh, against the army of Ramses II. Some revolts occur later in the Arzawa, especially under the reign of Muwatalli II, which faces the ambitions of the Ahhiyawa, and under that of Tudhaliya IV, which represses the revolt of the kingdom of the river Seha. The region then sees some of the peoples of the sea settle, which ravage the Near East, like the Lukka (Lycians). The last mention of the Arzawa is made by Pharaoh Ramses III, who reports the destruction of the country by the Peoples of the Sea.
Definitions of culture
the arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively.
20th century popular culture
synonyms: the arts, the humanities, intellectual achievement, literature, music, painting, philosophy, the performing arts
the cultivation of bacteria, tissue cells, etc., in an artificial medium containing nutrients.
the cells proliferate readily in culture
maintain (tissue cells, bacteria, etc.) in conditions suitable for growth.
Bovine aortic endothelial cells were cultured in complete growth medium as described previously.
culture shock, corporate culture, pop culture, popular culture, youth culture, culture medium, tissue culture, culture vulture, physical culture, blood culture
Translations of culture
culture, farming, education, enlightenment, reading