Ahhiyawa



The Ahhiyawa (ancient form Ahhiya) is a kingdom that appears primarily in the archives of the Hittite kingdom in the second half of The debate about its location, due to the fact that we can see a mention of the Achaeans, is still far from being closed, especially since in ancient times homonyms were frequent, the same name could designate several peoples and countries (for example, there are several |).

Ionie? == This term is to be compared with the foreign designations for ancient Greece. Because of its high degree of civilization, Ionia, that is to say, Greece of Asia, or the western part of Anatolia, designates in certain languages ​​the whole of the Greek civilization, or say rather , the Greeks who were closest and whose contacts were most frequent. For example, in Aramaic, the name “ܝܘܢ” refers to the entire Greek territory. The same is true for the name “يونان” (Yūnān) in Arabic which designates Greece, as well as “Yunanistan” in Turkish and “יון” (Yawan, Yavane) in Hebrew. The poet Homer, calls the first Greeks Iaonees, and from Sargon II, the name Iavanu appears in the Assyrian inscriptions. Darius, Persian emperor, will use the name iauna. Moreover, this name appears in a similar form in the ancient Egyptian narratives relating to the Ionians. He passed into Sanskrit in the form Yavana (यवन), with a secondary sense of stranger or barbarian, who arrived as far as Khmer in the depreciative form of “Yuon” (យួន), which means Vietnamese. In this sense, Ahhiyawa would be closer to Ιωνία (Ionia). The factor of the situation is also in this favor, the Ionia being located southwest of Anatolia. As soon as a translation of the word Ahhiyawa into a Hittite text designating a kingdom located towards Western Anatolia or the Aegean Sea, many scholars of Anatolian civilizations brought this word closer to those of Achaiwia and Achaia, designating the Achaeans, the This discovery was therefore seen as proof of the existence of the Mycenaean kingdom mentioned in the texts of Homer. The Ahhiyawa = Achaens hypothesis, however, was soon disputed by the fact that this kingdom appeared to others as being located in Thrace, Rhodes or Cyprus, but especially in Asia Minor Southwest: according to these disputes, nothing in archeology there is no contact between the Mycenaean civilization and that of the Hittites, nor that the Mycenaeans have constituted states powerful enough to extend their influence to Anatolia. Those who saw in the Ahhiyawa the Achaeans themselves are not all in agreement as to the location of this kingdom: in Asia Minor, or in continental Greece. A further argument in favor of the Ahhiyawa / Achaean identity lies in the fact that there is in the Hittite texts a town called Millawanda, which is very close to Ahhiyawa politically. But many want to see in this city Miletus (Miletos), whose archaeological excavations have revealed strong links with the Mycenaean civilization. The debate remains open: a certain number of Mycenaean scholars still dispute the fact that the Ahhiyawa are Achaeans, while on the other hand a significant part of the specialists of Hittite Anatolia believe it. If the Ahhiyawa are not the Achaeans, it implies the existence in the Aegean region (and southwestern Anatolia) of two peoples with similar names, but which would be different, one attested only by archeology and the Homeric tradition, and the other attested only by the Hittite texts of the time. The sources do not allow us to decide this debate.

The first mention of this country goes back to the reign of the Hittite king Tudhaliya (c.1465-1430 BC). A character named Attarsiya is called “the man of Ahhiya” (probably a king or an important figure). He faces the Hittite vassal Madduwatta before finally joining forces with him, no doubt against the Hittites. A few decades later, around 1322, it was Mursili II (circa 1340-1310 BC), who got into trouble with a “king of Ahhiyawa” who joined forces with Arzawa and to Millawanda against him. The coalition is defeated, but the Ahhiyawa country is not mentioned in the submissive territories, unlike its two allies. On the contrary, it is the king of Arzawa Uhha-Ziti who takes refuge with the king of Ahhiyawa before he extradites him to the Hittites under the pressure of Mursili. It seems that this kingdom is out of reach of the Hittites, which is an important argument to locate it in the Aegean, or in continental Greece. Muwatalli, the son of Mursili II, is in turn dealing with Piyamaradu, a renegade Hittite nobleman who wreaks havoc in Western Anatolia and joins the Ahhiyawa king. But the two kingdoms are not in conflict, and their relations remain cordial. The kingdom of Ahhiyawa pais known to have reached its peak during the reign of Muwatalli’s brother, Hattushili III (c 1265-1250 BC). We have a copy of a letter sent by this king to the king of Ahhiyawa, in which he speaks to his counterpart as a “brother”, a sign that he considers him his equal, as well as the kings of Egypt, Assyria or Babylon. But this is probably due to the circumstances, Hattushili seeking to spare his counterpart, whose brother, named Tawagalawa, helps Piyamaradu to stir trouble among the Hittite vassals of Western Anatolia. This may be a maneuver going as far as the king of Ahhiyawa, eager to weaken the Hittite king, while he extends his influence to Millawanda, former Hatti vassal who passes for his ally. Tudhaliya IV (c.1250-1210 BC) nevertheless manages to shake the Ahhiyawa, and he turns the King of Millawanda on his side. In a contemporary treatise, the name of the Ahhiyawa king, mentioned at first as the equal of the Hittite king, is erased as if one were trying to decommission it. This would translate a loss of influence on his part, and thus a weakening of his kingdom. After this latest Ahhiyawa intrusion into Hittite affairs, nothing in the sources of this country mentions this people and its kingdom, the Hittite kingdoms collapsing a few years later. Outside, there is a similarly similar place name, Akaiwaya, in the Linear B Archives found in Knossos, Crete. The texts of Pharaoh Merenptah speaking of the Peoples of the Sea mention Eqwesh, often identified as Achaeans (Akaiwasha), which would show that this people is still active at that time. But the identification of the Eqwesh with the Achaeans is itself not assured. The Bilingual Luvito-Phoenician Bilingual Çineköy attests the survival of this people until, it is identified with the cities of Mopsueste and Adana, the character from the Greek mythology Mopsos and the kingdom of Que. At that time his king Awarikas (named Urikki in Phoenician) is threatened by the king of Phrygia Midas and must appeal to the Assyrians, therefore recognizing their suzerainty.

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