The Adena civilizations are pre-Columbian cultures that develop at (-1000 / -100), early in the woodland period in the woodlands of the eastern United States, Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, Kentucky and parts of Pennsylvania and New York State. Rich mounds adjoin artificial mounds.
The modest Adena villages punctuate the river valleys where there are plenty of small mammals, birds, fish and a wide variety of consumable plants. Horticulture begins to produce sunflowers, elderberry, squash, cucurbitaceae and chenopodium. Agricultural surpluses may explain the development of this culture, which is considered to be Mound Builders. They live in rectangular houses, built of solid material, which reveals their sedentary lifestyle.
The important figures of the Adena civilization are sometimes placed in log-log graves, which are entirely consumed during funerary ceremonies, before covering them with a conical mound that can reach high. More often corpses are burned in clay basins dug in the ground, the ashes being then buried under funerary mounds. Funerary furnishings include polished stone tools, bobbin-shaped pipes, brass bracelets, rings, copper beads and spoons, marine shell pearls, and pottery. Thin tablets engraved with curvilinear and zoomorphic designs may indicate tattoos of the dead. The Adena culture also has large circular structures of crushed earth. It has long been attributed to the astonishing ensemble of the Great Snake Tumulus, along with, but recent studies believe that it would have been achieved by the so-called culture of.