Archeological Operating System, or ArcheOS



Archeological Operating System, or ArcheOS in short, is a GNU/Linux live distribution meant to address archaeological computing concerns. Currently, a new version (5.0), codenamed “Theodoric” is being developed. It is based on Debian “Wheezy.”

A Brief History

ArcheOS is one of the many specialist kinds of operating systems Linux users can download and use. This particular system is tailored to serve archaeological purposes. The OS is of Italian origin, and it was first released in 2005.

The second version would come three years later in 2008, and the third version would follow soon after in 2009. The fourth version of the was released in 2011, and it was based on Debian Squeeze.

Although the recent versions of the program are based on Debian GNU/Linux, version 1 was based on PCLinuxOS while versions 2 and 3 were based on Kubuntu.

Applications that Come with the ArcheOS

CAD

Some of the CAD applications on this OS include LibreCAD, and Spatialite and SQLite data base applications. SQLite is a world-famous SQL database engine; while Spatialite helps with the management of spatial data.

3D Graphics Applications

Additionally, Blender, MakeHuman, InVesalius, Meshlab, and Whitedune are bundled with the OS for the sake of 3D graphics processing. Blender is a pretty popular 3D content creation suite, and it is freely available. MakeHuman is another key 3D application intended for creating professional-grade 3 dimensional humanoid characters.

Photogrammetry

While Tellervo is the OS’s dendrychronology application, Python Photogrammetry Toolbox is the photogrammetry program. This latter application is useful for recording three-dimensional data.

GIS

GIS (Geographical Information System) applications included are GRASS, openJUMP, QGIS, and Josm. These should come in handy when capturing, handling and analyzing information with geographical references.

For instance, openJUMP is a Java-based program well suited to this role. On the other hand, GRASS, in addition to being a GIS application, can be used to analyze images, manage data, and help produce maps and graphics among other things.

Graphics

Graphics programs include Gimp, Darktable, InkScape, Ristretto, and Shutter. These applications should assist with regular photo editing, but at a professional level for better results. For instance, InkScape is useful in the creation of SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) format files.

Other programs you will get with the OS include LibreOffice, LyX Processor, Marble, RStudio, Texmaker, Ipe, Jabref, and Scribus.

How to Install ArcheOS

ArcheOS is available free of charge, which is typical of all Linux distros. You can install the operating system using a DVD or directly from your hard disk. If you prefer the DVD installation, you have to download the ArcheOS .iso image file.

From there, you should burn it onto a DVD using a common software like Brasero or Nero. Burning at low speeds is recommended for better quality results. Once the operating system is in a DVD in a bootable format, you can go ahead and restart your computer with the DVD still in the tray.

Make sure the computer is set to prioritize DVD booting so that it does not load the OS already on the hard disk and skip right over the ArcheOS DVD. Other than the install option, the DVD will also give you a “live” option. This lets you run the program without having to install it on the hard drive so that you can get a feel of what it is really like.

The OS can also be installed directly from the computer using the install option provided. After that you should follow the easy to follow installation instructions until the OS is fully installed on your computer.

Getting ArcheOS through a Debian Wheezy Update

You do not have to make a clean installation of the ArcheOS on your computer if you already have Debian Wheezy installed. As mentioned earlier, ArcheOS is based on Debian Wheezy. So, you can update this base system into ArcheOS through a few update procedures. This can be done through your terminal.

You Can Also Build ArcheOS Yourself

This is for the pros who have some software development skills. The ArcheOS you build can even be distributed to other users. Without having to go into a lot of details, you should know that building ArcheOS requires you to ensure that your system and its OS setup meets the minimum standards.

After that, you have to configure your system in readiness for the OS building process. From there, you should follow the steps provided on the relevant sites. They include building the ISO file, adding the required packages, and changing the build architecture if you so desire.

Furthermore, if you want a custom made ArcheOS but are not in a position to create your own ArcheOS, you can always see what Team OS has to offer.

Conclusion

ArcheOS has plenty to offer archaeologists. The program has enough features to provide a unique computing experience for anyone collecting, editing, processing, and documenting archaeological finds.

The operating system has many world-class applications that will prove critical to this profession. Installation is also easy, and a live boot option is available, as a well as a dual boot capability for those who need it.

ArcheOS Download Links

Collapsologie

Collapsology is the study of the collapse of industrial civilization and what could succeed it. Developed by Pablo Servigne and Raphaël Stevens in their essay Comment tout tout collombrer: Collapsology, a short collapsology manual for current generations published in 2015, is an applied and transdisciplinary science involving ecology, economics, anthropology, sociology, psychology, biophysics, biogeography, agriculture, demography, politics, geopolitics, archeology, history, futurology, health, law and art. This systemic approach is based on the two cognitive modes of reason and intuition, as well as on recognized scientific works, such as the 1972 Meadows Report, the “A safe operating space for humanity” and “Approaching a” studies. state shift in Earth’s biosphere “published in Nature in 2009 and 2012, or the article” The trajectory of the Anthropocene: The Great Acceleration “published in 2015 in the scientific journal The Anthropocene Review.

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Joseph-Marie Essomba

Joseph-Marie Essomba is a Cameroonian scholar, specialized in history and archeology, born October 28, 1939 in Mvengue II (South Cameroon Province), and died February 5, 2014 in Yaoundé. Emeritus professor of university, he was president of the Cameroonian National Committee of Museums (ICOM-Cameroon) from 1978 to 2013. He has been, in turn, Deputy Chief of the Department of Conservation, Deputy Director and Director of Cultural Affairs at the Ministry of Information and Culture of Cameroon.

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Cruciform Corridor Tomb

The cruciform corridor tomb is a complex variant of a corridor tomb found in Ireland, West Wales and Orkney Islands. They were built towards the end of the Neolithic, from about 3500 BC. They are distinguished by a long corridor, which leads to a central chamber with corbelled ceiling. From this hall extend in three directions sepulchral rooms, giving a view from above of the form of a cross. Some rooms have sub-rooms from the original three rooms.

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Chamber Tomb

A chamber tomb is a type of tomb used by different cultures throughout history. These tombs sometimes shelter several individuals, belonging to the same family or social group, or are sometimes for a single person or a couple and then demonstrate a high social level. It is not uncommon that beside the bodies (or ashes) of the dead are a number of objects. The rooms are often made of large stones or megaliths, but sometimes of wood, and covered with cairn or tumulus.

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Pierre lyre

A lyre stone is a bifurcated megalith with a central tenon – in the form of a lyre – characteristic of Senegambia, which is given an astronomical role. The lyre stone also has a symbolic value: in 1967, the Senegal Post issued a stamp dedicated to the lyre stone of Kaffrine. It has also been chosen as the logo of the Directorate of Cultural Heritage of Senegal.

In 1985, 47 bifid stones were identified by Guy Thilmans, three of which left their original site (those of Keur Ali Ngane, Soto and Djigui). The first is in one of the rooms of the Historical Museum of Senegal in Goree, the second at the Quai Branly Museum in Paris, the third in Dakar. Of the 44 stones left on the site, nine are on the Wanar site, including three on the same front line of a megalithic circle – which is exceptional. But many are damaged.

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Monolith

A monolith (from the Greek, “only one”, and, “stone”) is a large block of stone, consisting of a single element, natural or cut or even displaced by Man.

A monolith can be natural: Uluru and Mount Augustus, Australia, considered the world’s largest monolith, or the monolith of Ben Amira, Mauritania, or the Zuma Rock Monolith in Nigeria. Some rock masses can be called monolithic although they are in fact aggregates of agglomerated rocks: this is the case, for example, in France of the cargneulite monolith of Sardières (high).

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Stone coin

The stone coin, in Yap North or South Yap, is a Yap-specific monetary system, described by Cora Lee C. Gilliland, and then by Gregory Mankiw, a professor at Harvard University. Yap stones are large round stones similar to grindstones, with a hole in the middle, and whose size can range from diameter. They are cut in a native material composed of aragonite and calcite. Listed, they are in number and only for large purchases. For the rest, we use US dollars.

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Moai

The moai, or moai, locally ‘mo’ai’, are the monumental statues of Easter Island (island belonging to Chile located in Polynesia), they are dated chronologically between 1250 and 1500. The majority of these monoliths are carved in tufa mainly from the Rano Raraku quarry. Some have however been carved in other volcanic rocks of the island (basalt, trachyte or volcanic tuff). Their size varies from 2.5 to 9 meters, for an average weight of 14 tons, up to the largest ones. All are monoliths turned mainly towards the interior of the island with the exception of Ahu Akivi whose moai look at the ocean. According to Jo Anne Van Tilburg, the number of Moai on the entire island is close to 887 with an average weight of, all are not visible, some are fragmented or have been recovered to build other monuments . The moai as they were to be in their final state, after edification, had white eyes made of white coral and red irises in volcanic tuff or black obsidian. Some of them wear a kind of cap, the pukao, made of red tuff, from the quarry of Puna Pau, and weighing itself several tons. Emblem of the island, the moai, large stone statues, were erected by the matamua (“the first” in Maori), former inhabitants of the island, who identified as descendants of the Polynesian discoverer Hotu Matu’a, come, according to their oral tradition, of “Hiva”, perhaps Hiva Oa or Nuku Hiva. The ahu, ceremonial platforms hosting moai, became necropolis from the secondary tombs for the reburial of skeletons brought from elsewhere are arranged there. In the Moai quarry, located on a slope of the Rano Raraku volcano, in the east of the island, one can see hundreds of statues, some seeming almost completed, others in the draft stage. It is thought that the extraction of the statues ceased because of the replacement of the ancestor cult by that of the god Make-make and the Tangata manu, the “bird-man”, at s.

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Household of saint Kodelig

The household of saint Kodelig (in Breton) is a group of stones located on the commune of Plovan in the department of Finistère. A local legend is attached to this megalithic site, composed of a Gallic stele, a Neolithic menhir and a crude flat stone. All the stones and the practices that Men have developed around them are part of the Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage in France. The outdoor area is crossed by a hiking trail but the parcels on which the stones are located are private. The cleaning of Saint Kodelig is integrated into the interpretation circuit “In the footsteps of the horse of pride” and the hiking and mountain bike trail No. 24 labeled by the French Federation of Hiking.

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The CH

A ” ‘lec’h (or lech’ ”) is a Gaulish megalith of hemispherical or oblong form. It is found in particular in Brittany, in the Massif Central and Maine. It is also found in England, Wales.

“Lec’h” is a Breton word, which means “flat stone”. It is close to the word “cromlech”. This name of lec’h is found in the old Welsh poems to designate a burial place.

The lec’hs are carved stones, taking one of two forms: semi-spherical terminal or oblong stele.

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Giant Church

A Giant Church () or Noise Church () is a large, stone-age stone building that can be found in Ostrobothnia and on the northern shores of Bothnian Bay.

The giant churches are Neolithic stone structures, specific to the coastal region between Yli-Ii and Närpes in Ostrobothnia. They date from 2500-2000 BCE, and are concentrated on the old coast. Most of these have been built on islands or on landforms, but can now be moved up to 30 kilometers indoors due to the postglacial rebound. There are between 40 and 50 depending on the definition you choose. The churches of the giant are usually rectangular, their length can go from about 12 to 60 meters Their height is low, between half a meter and 2 meters in some cases.

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The Chronoliths

The Chronoliths (original title: The Chronoliths) is a science-fiction novel by Canadian writer Robert Charles Wilson, published in the United States in 2001 and in France in 2003.

The novel won the 2002 John Wood Campbell Memorial Award, tied with Jack Williamson’s Terraforming Earth, and was nominated the same year for the Hugo Award for Best Novel.

The novel, which begins in 2021 and ends on an unspecified date, is composed of three parts of different lengths.

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Bazina

A bazina (plural: bazinas) is a funeral monument whose upper part is often domed, frustoconical dry stone, pre-Islamic; access to the burial chamber is invisible. The dead man is buried on the ground and covered by a projecting funeral building. This post-neolithic architecture. The term comes from the Berber word meaning butte. It is found in particular around Chellala and Tamda, Algeria. In Niger, they appear around 2200 BC. J.C. and disappear with the arrival of Islam.

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Saint Conogan Stone Boat

The stone ship of Saint Conogan (Bag sant Konogan in Breton language) or vessel / stone boat is a megalith, or according to the versions a granite block (natural formation), to which is attached a legend. It is located in the town of Beuzec-Cap-Sizun, in the department of Finistere, Brittany. This stone is listed as a dolmen in the general inventory of the cultural heritage of 1983. This stone and the cultural practices associated with it are also listed in the Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage in France.

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megalithism

Megalithism is a complex phenomenon, present in many parts of the world, from the end of Prehistory to the present day. The term refers to a form of Neolithic architecture consisting of erecting megaliths (from mega Greek = large; lithos = stone, literally large stones), the period during which these buildings were erected and their scientific study by archaeologists who try to understand the meaning. In particular, megalithism has been of particular importance in Europe for the Neolithic peoples. The term “megalithic art” is also used to refer to the use of megaliths, erected by prehistoric groups for religious or sepulchral purposes but also as astronomical observatories or even as an artistic medium. The expression is more generally used to describe art engraved on megaliths.

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Megalith

In Neolithic architecture, a megalith (Greek mega (μέγας), “big”, and líthos (λίθος), “stone”) is a monument related to megalithism and consists of one or more large stones, erected (or lifted) by men, without the aid of mortar or cement to fix the structure. If the term “megalith” can be used to describe monuments erected everywhere on the planet at different times, the attention of researchers focuses on the oldest monuments corresponding to the Mesolithic, the Neolithic, the Chalcolithic or even the Bronze age, depending on the region. For some researchers, there exist in the Neolithic next to these megaliths, their wooden counterparts called, lack of term created to designate them, dolmens and menhirs in wood.

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Western Australian Museum

The is the state museum of Western Australia, located in Perth.

Founded in 1891 in Perth, Canada under the name of Geological Museum, it essentially collects geological collections. The following year, ethnological and biological collections were added, and in 1897 the museum officially became the Western Australian Museum and Art Gallery. In 1959 the botanical collections were transferred to the new Herbarium and the Museum and the Art Gallery became separate institutions. The museum focuses its research interests and collections in the fields of natural sciences, anthropology, archeology and Western Australian history. During the 1960s and 1970s he also began working in the then emerging fields of historic shipwrecks and aboriginal site management.

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Azerbaijan Museum (Tabriz)

The Azerbaijani Museum, or Tabriz Museum, is a museum located in Iran in Tabriz, capital of the province of Eastern Azerbaijan, in the north-west of the country. Inaugurated in April 1958 during the reign of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, this museum is dedicated to the history and archeology of the region. It is one of the most important in Iran in these areas. It is not far from Khaqani Park and Blue Mosque. A dozen showcases display anthropological pieces of great significance for local history. Some pieces of the museum go back to the av.

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National Museum of Sudan

The National Museum of Sudan (in Arabic) of Khartoum, the capital, has the largest archaeological collection in the country. The museum’s construction project, begun in the 1950s, was completed in the 1960s with the help of UNESCO and following the creation of Lake Nasser in 1964, which endangered a vast archaeological heritage.

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Reykjavik 871 ± 2

Reykjavík 871 ± 2, is an exhibition of Iceland located in Reykjavik. It is part of the Árbær Farm Museum outside the city center and features archaeological elements from the Viking period. It is located on the site of a search of a Viking habitat dated about 871 with a two-year uncertainty, which gave its name to the exhibition, in the center of the capital and also presents other objects discovered in the rest of the city.

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National Museum of Phimai

The National Museum of Phimai is a museum of art, archeology and history of Thailand located in Phimai, Nakhon Ratchasima province. It is near the Phimai Historical Park. It was created in 1964.

It was originally an open-air museum, dedicated to the ancient art and architecture of Isaan. Most of the objects come from excavations carried out on the site of Prasat Hin Phimai, but also from other sites of the provinces of Nakhon Ratchasima, Chaiyaphum, Buriram, Surin and Sisaket. In 1989, the Department of Fine Arts carried out the project of making the National Museum of Phimaï conform to the standards of international museums. Funding was provided by a royal project and an army project (called the North East Green), three new adjoining buildings were built to house the collections and gardens were developed. Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn presided at the inauguration ceremony of the new complex on August 4, 1993.

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Philippine People’s Museum

The Philippine People’s Museum is a department of the National Museum of the Philippines that houses the Anthropology and Archeology sections. It is located in the old building of the Philippine Ministry of Finance, along Rizal Park, near the Intramuros area, opposite the main building of the National Museum.

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Suan Pakkad Palace

Suan Pakkad Palace, or Suan Pakkard (Suan Phak Kat) is a museum in Bangkok, Thailand. It is on Sri Ayutthaya Road, south of Victory Monument. It features Thai antiques, including Ban Chiang pottery of over. Originally, the palace was the residence of Prince Chumbhotpong Paripatra (1904-1959) and his wife, who turned it into a museum, opened in 1952. It has four traditional Thai houses, connected by a covered gallery.

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Pre-Columbian Gold Museum

The Pre-Columbian Gold Museum (Museo del Oro Precolombino “Álvaro Vargas Echeverría” ” ‘) is an archaeological museum located in San José (Costa Rica), located on three floors below ground level, under the Plaza de la Cultura, and managed by the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It is considered one of the three most important Latin American museums dedicated to pre-Columbian gold objects (after the Bogota and Lima Gold Museum). The collection is composed of 1600 pre-Columbian gold coins dating from between 300 and 1500. Most of the objects come from south-west Costa Rica and testify to the mastery of the Chibcha and Diqui Indian tribes.

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National Museum of Beirut

The National Museum of Beirut (Arabic: متحف بيروت الوطني) is the main archaeological museum of Lebanon located on Damascus Street in Beirut in the district of Badaro. The inventory includes more than 100,000, most of which comes from excavations undertaken by the Antiquities Branch. About 1,300 objects are exhibited chronologically, from Prehistory to the Mamluk period.

Although the collection of artifacts began as early as the end of World War I, the museum officially opened in 1942.

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Museum of Schokland

The Museum of Schokland is an open air museum located in the municipality of Noordoostpolder, in the Dutch province of Flevoland. It presents the history of the ancient island of Schokland and the surrounding polders.

The museum is located on the former terp of Middelbuurt. He opened in 1947, in the church of this village, the Enserkerk, exhibiting a number of archaeological discoveries. The museum was renovated between 1961 and 1967, then expanded in 1987 with the addition of old renovated houses. It is then moved and installed in wooden houses, on a dedicated site, the Zuiderzeestijl. The museum receives about 40,000 visitors every year.

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Museum of Cham sculpture

The Museum of Cham Sculpture is a museum displaying works of Cham art and located near the Hàn river (Sông Hàn, or Hàn giang; 汗 江), in the city of Đà Nẵng formerly called Tourane in Annam in the center of Vietnam, in the district of Hải Châu. The Museum of Antiquity Cham imagined and proposed in 1902 by Henri Parmentier and who then drew up the plans, was created in 1915. It was first named museum Henri Parmentier, named after the archaeologist and architect who was the initiator. Indeed, he spent his life in Indochina and especially in Cambodia and devoted his life to studying and restoring Cham and Khmer temples. Now a museum of Cham sculpture, it is home to the world’s largest collection of Cham sculpture and has become a popular tourist destination with many foreigners every year. The centenary of the museum (1915-2015) was celebrated during Vietnam Heritage Day with the presentation of a renovation project funded by the City of Da Nang.

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Moesgård Museum

The Moesgård estate in the woods of Højbjerg is located south of Aarhus in Jutland (Denmark). It has been home to the Moesgård Museum since 1970. The paths, paths and roads are crossed by millenarian paved paths and dotted with oaks, linden trees and chestnut trees. In October 2014, the museum was expanded with a new building with green roofs and sloping roofs. This museum is famous not only for the valuable archaeological remains of Scandinavia, from the Paleolithic to the Viking Age (including the Stone of the Mask and other rune stones), but also for its great ethnographic manifestations. This museum preserves in particular the mummified body of the Grauballe Man and the remains of the Germanic Iron Age discovered in Illerup Ådal.

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Jade Museum

The Jade Museum (Museo del Jade and Cultura Precolombina Marco Fidel Tristan Castro) is an archaeological museum located in San Jose (Costa Rica), first in the premises of the INS (National Institute of Insurance) then, from 2014, in a modern building specially designed to accommodate it, facing the Plaza de la Democracia. Founded in 1977 by Fidel Tristán Castro, first president of INS, it houses the largest pre-Columbian jade collection in America. It includes adzes, ceremonial masks and decorative objects dating back to 500 BC. At 800 BC. AD, but also chorotega (volcanic stone mills), ceramics, pottery and gold ornaments. The jade came from Guatemala and neighboring regions.

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National Museum of Iran

The ” ‘National Museum of Iran or Archaeological Museum of Iran’ ” is an archaeological and historical museum located in Tehran. It was inaugurated in 1937 and retains antiquities from ancient Persia as objects of pottery, metal, books, coins … The museum consists of two buildings. The first is devoted to pre-Islamic collections, the second includes all objects of the Islamic era. The first building consists of three rooms. These contain objects dating from the Paleolithic, Neolithic as well as the Bronze and Iron Age to the late, Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian and Sassanid times. The post-Islamic part of the museum was inaugurated in 1996 and has three floors. It contains many pieces of pottery, textiles, texts, works of art, astrolabes and calligraphy from the Islamic history of Iran.

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Secular Gregorian Museum

The secular Gregorian Museum is one of the Vatican Museums. It houses a collection of antiques that was once part of the Lateran Museum, now extinct. It was founded by Gregory XVI in the Lateran Palace, in 1844, then transferred to the Vatican at the request of John XXIII, and reopened in 1970. The museum includes objects that, for the most part, come from excavations and finds made in the Papal States.

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Gozo Archeology Museum

The ” ‘archeology museum of Gozo (in Maltese’ ‘Il-Mużew tal-Arkeoloġija ta’ Għawdex and in English Gozo Museum of Archeology ‘) is one of the two archeology museums of Malta. The museum is housed in a building located in the citadel of Ir-Rabat. It served initially as a town hall where the Knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem received their distinguished guests. It has also served as home to the Bondì family, hence the name of Casa Bondì under which it is also known. Deceased, it was restored in 1937 by Sir Harry Luke, Lieutenant Governor of Malta. In 1960, it hosts the first public museum of the island; his collections then include archaeological and ethnographic objects. In 1986, non-archaeological collections were transferred to other buildings in the citadel.

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Erebouni Museum

The Erebuni museum (in Armenian: ‘) or museum-historical and archeological reserve Erebuni (‘) is an archaeological museum located near the Urartian fortress of Erebuni in Yerevan, the Armenian capital. It presents the objects found during the excavations of the site as well as those carried out at the Urartean fortress of Teishebani and on the site of Chengavit (where the museum has antennas).

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Children of Llullaillaco

The children of Llullaillaco are three children having lived in the present Argentina, sacrificed and whose bodies were conserved intact by the cold until their discovery in 1999, on Llullaillaco volcano, to more of altitude.

This is a boy and two girls, from 6 to 14 years old. They lived before the arrival of Europeans. They each wore a ceremonial dress and a trousseau: “delicate statuettes with human figures dressed in traditional textiles and feathers, combs, woven pouches filled with corn, coca leaves, cups and wooden spoons”.

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Shipwreck Conservation Center

The Shipwreck Conservation Center is a subsidiary of the National Maritime Museum of Gdańsk, opened the undefined undefined undefined in a specially constructed building in Tczew near the Vistula Museum. The center was created in collaboration with the Norwegian Museum of the Navy and the Museum of the History of Culture of the University of Oslo. It was financed with the means of the Norwegian Financial Mechanism (85%) and grants from the Ministry of Culture of Poland. The museum has two parts: the conservation workshop and the exhibition hall.

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National Museum of Bahrain

The National Museum of Bahrain () is the largest and one of the oldest museums in Bahrain, located in Manama, the capital.

Built near the King Faisal Highway in Manama, the capital, and inaugurated in December 1988, the museum designed by a Danish company, KHR Arkitekter, covers 27800 square meters, and consists of two buildings. It has a rich collection of archaeological artifacts from ancient Bahrain, acquired since 1988, and covers 6000 years of the kingdom’s history. Three large halls are dedicated to the archeology and ancient civilization of Dilmun. The large hall has on the ground a satellite map of the island, with the current state (around 2000) of all human installations. The walls of the same hall present in Arabic and English an excellent introduction to traditional Bahraini architecture, and rehabilitation achievements as well as projects for the development of different heritages.

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Archaeological Museum

Archaeological museums are specialized in the exhibition of archaeological objects. Many are in the open air, like the Acropolis of Athens. Others present artifacts found in archaeological sites inside buildings. Their collaborators conduct archaeological excavations and conduct research. Many of these museums have a large collection of Egyptian antiquities.

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Universal civilization

The terms universal civilization and world civilization are linked to a perception of the effects of globalization. They refer to the global sharing of ways, values, practices, beliefs, and even directions.

Some consider that globalization makes us witness the emergence of what Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul called a “universal civilization”. Václav Havel writes: According to the defenders of this point of view, the changes that globalization brings lead us to think differently about issues related to culture or civilization. They argue that the development of information and knowledge technologies and technologies in general, trade development, migration or tourism, would be the basis of this world civilization. CS. Naipaul and Fouad Ajami are the most fervent defenders.

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Medieval translations of the Bible

The medieval translations of the French prose Bible, that is to say, Bibles written like the ones we read today and which resembled the Latin versions to the point of being taken for them, are few. Often, we preferred to adapt in verse because it offered a great freedom of improvisation or comment. The first “true” integral translations date from the end of. The translations of the Psalter into Germanic and Romance languages ​​are among the oldest known translations ().

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Theories on the risk of collapse of industrial civilization

” Theories on the risk of collapse of industrial civilization ” are theories about the risks of imminent decline in the contemporary industrial world that include the extinction of many living species, including mankind, and ‘part of a process of global collapse. These conceptions describe a systemic risk of planetary catastrophes caused directly by its mode of operation. These theories of collapse are not based on direct scientific evidence, but rely on measurable indices and documented studies. The apocalyptic warnings (or the end of the world) are part of an old tradition, but the originality of the current theories is that they are based on scientific facts whose reality is recognized by scientific and institutional reports and expertise, such as those of the Club of Rome, the IPCC, international military authorities, the World Bank and the Davos Forum. In addition, the risks put forward are now based on human activity.

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Hittite military oath

The Hittite Military Oath (CTH 427) is a Hittite text inscribed on two cuneiform tablets. The first tablet was preserved only as fragments (KBo XXI 10, KUB XL 13, and other minor fragments), the second tablet was copied in triplicate, and was able to be restored almost completely. The oldest copy (KUB XL 13) is fragmentary, but two more recent copies (KUB XL 16, KBo VI, 34) are well preserved. The text is in Old-Hittite, and contains some transcription errors committed by later scribes, and represents the oath pronounced by the military leaders. More precisely, he describes a series of symbolic acts whose purpose is to represent the afflictions that were to fall on those who take the oath, if they failed in their word.

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Rice civilization

It is called rice civilization all territories and populations of which rice is (or rather was) the main crop and the main food. It covers mainly the Asian continent and opposes as such the civilization of wheat (Europe and the Middle East) and corn (America). This concept, coined by the French historian Fernand Braudel, is mainly applied to the history of the world from Antiquity to. By the end of, the first globalization blurs the tracks and makes this description obsolete. Rice is the civilization plant of the Asian continent. Braudel tells us that it is a “dominant, tyrannical” plant. Rice and wheat come from the same geographical area: Central Asia. The West chose wheat while the Orient opted for rice. The main advantage of rice on wheat is to be able to produce two or even three harvests a year. These yields, however, require a very strict agricultural calendar and permanent efforts, which is not the case for wheat.

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Eastern Party in Greece

The Eastern Party in Greece reflects the concept of the Eastern Party, in the countries of the Third World, in opposition to that of the Western Party, a concept used by both the peoples concerned and the social sciences, for more than a century to define the opposition of the majority of the population to the attempts of their westernization. Since the West sees Greece as its mother, many refuse to accept that it can be part of the non-West and persist in believing that the eastern party in this country is a marginal phenomenon. But, according to Dimitri Kitsikis, “the Eastern Party has always been the best advocate of the Greek tradition which is inseparable from Orthodoxy. Hellenism is not only a nation, it is a civilization that once radiated the entire surface of the Intermediate Region. ”

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History of the Western world

The term “western world” can be confusing because it covers different realities according to the times and according to political, cultural, ideological, religious or philosophical considerations. It is therefore interesting to study it in a historical perspective. The Western world or, more simply, the West means, in a classical vision, a cultural area inheriting from ancient Greece (thought, science) and ancient Rome (right) and later imbued with Judeo-Christian Catholic and Protestant culture. In this sense, the roots of the West go back to ancient times. It finds its origin in the establishment of colonies by the cities of Ancient Greece which diffused little by little their civilization on all the Mediterranean rim. It was under this influence that the city of Rome gradually developed to the point of forming a vast empire. In 296, Diocletian administratively divided the Roman Empire into two parts: the East and the West, establishing a first boundary between what will long be the Eastern world and the Western world. After a period of relative decline during the Middle Ages, the West developed more strongly than the rest of the world with the Renaissance and then with the Enlightenment in freeing itself from the influence of the Church, before reaching its culminating with the Industrial Revolution of, the European colonization of the world and finally with the political revolutions of the, which established secularism and parliamentary democracy.

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West

The West, or Western world, is a geopolitical concept that is generally based on the idea of ​​a common civilization, heir to the Greco-Roman civilization from which modern Western society emerged. His current employment also implies a distancing with either the rest of the world or one or more other areas of influence of the world such as the Arab world, the Chinese world or the Russian sphere of influence. Originally this distanciation was expressed against the East and Constantinople. Indeed, the political notion of the West gradually emerged from 285 with the division of the Roman Empire, when the Roman Empire of the West, which uses the Latin alphabet forms around Rome, and that the Empire Eastern Roman who uses the Greek alphabet is constituted around Constantinople. The decline of the Western Roman Empire culminated in the end of Western political unity in 476, without undermining religious unity, leading to the expansion of the influence of the Roman Catholic Church to the Church. Northern Europe and Central Europe. The advance Omeyyade in Spain is stopped by the reestablishment of a western military unit under the command of Charles Martel, victorious in Poitiers in 732. It is in this context that Charlemagne takes the title of emperor of the West in the 800. In 1078, the Seljuk Turks prohibited Christian pilgrims from entering Jerusalem, leading in 1096 to the beginning of the Crusades during which Westerners launched armed expeditions into the “Holy Land”. The schism of 1054 had meanwhile marked a break in principle between Rome and Constantinople, the opposition then became religious. The fourth crusade, diverted by the Republic of Venice, concludes with a sack of Constantinople by the Crusaders. It weakens the Eastern Empire durably, but begins the Renaissance in the West. From there, the world knows two important upheavals: the Protestant Reformation which upsets Western Christianity and the capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans. The capture of Granada in 1492 marked at the same time the end of the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula. The European states abandon the Silk Road and begin to look for new routes to the Indies: this period named “Great Discoveries” leads to the gradual conquest of the “New World”. There will be a period of technological progress, the establishment of colonial counters, which will become colonial empires, the “Age of Enlightenment” and finally the industrial revolution. The Russian Empire is westernized from Peter the Great but the advent of the USSR will lead during the second half of the Cold War and a bipolar world dominated:

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Moche (culture)

The ugly culture (sometimes called mochica) is a pre-Incanic pre-Columbian culture that stretched along the Peruvian north coast, roughly between the year 100 and 700 AD. It was contemporary with the Nazca culture that occupied the south coast of Peru, being located chronologically between the Chavín era (ancient horizon) and the Chimú era. The brilliant culture of the mochicas is contemporary with the Maya of Mesoamerica and precedes the famous Inca empire for more than eight centuries.

At ap. BC, different cultures shared the northern coast of Peru, all heirs of the Chavín and Cupisnic cultures, the most remarkable being:

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Mississippi Civilization

The Mississippi civilization (or Mississippi culture) developed between, east of the Mississippi River, on the present territory of the United States. It can be attached to the culture of the Mound Builders, because it has produced large funeral mounds (tumulus). This civilization began to flourish in the Mississippi Valley, hence its name. It seems that it completely disappeared before the arrival of European settlers in North America.

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Mare Nostrum

Mare nostrum is a Latin expression which translated literally means “our sea” by evoking the Mediterranean.

The Romans have always preferred land to ships. For example, against the Carthage fleet at the Battle of Cape Ecnomus in 256 BC. JC, while Rome still had little experience in maritime matters, they won thanks to the crows (or iron hands) which immobilized the enemy ships and thus allowed the ground troops to fight in a close combat to which they were accustomed on the land. And even later, when the Romans were able to control the Mediterranean and all its seacoast, they considered it a kind of “swimming pool”, hence the expression mare nostrum, and avoiding the ocean beyond. beyond the columns of Hercules.

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Malaise in civilization

Malaise in civilization (original title: Das Unbehagen in der Kultur), sometimes translated in a way modeled on German, by Malaise dans la culture, is a book written by Sigmund Freud in the summer of 1929 and published in 1930.

In the aftermath of the First World War, which had led Freud to highlight, in 1920, the death drive in Beyond the Pleasure Principle, he broadened the perspective beyond the unconscious in the strict sense to endeavor to highlight a similar mechanism, at work at the level of culture, understood in the sense of civilization, as everything that governs and nourishes the common life of humanity. It is one of the few works in which Freud uses his metapsychology outside the psychoanalytic field alone, to put it in a social perspective, asking the question of whether civilization is moving towards a progress capable of overcoming destructive drives that drive it. Freud states in particular that:

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Corn civilization

The maize civilization is all the territories and populations where maize is (or rather was) the main crop and the main food. It covers the American continent and opposes as such the civilization of wheat (Europe and the Middle East) and rice (Asia). This concept, coined by the French historian Fernand Braudel, is mainly applied to the history of the world from Antiquity to. By the end of, the first globalization blurs the tracks and makes this description obsolete. Thus, wheat is massively introduced by Europeans on the American continent since. Corn is the civilization plant of the pre-Columbian American continent. Strangely, European scholars thought that this plant came from Asia while it was introduced in Europe following the discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus. Maize is the staple crop of the most solid pre-Columbian civilizations such as the Incas, the Mayans and the Aztecs.

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Meluhha

Meluhha was the name given by the Akkadians and then the Sumerians of the Ur III dynasty (this term appears in the cuneiforms around 2350) to a prosperous region which seems to be situated beyond the ancient lands of Dilmun (a priori the island of Bahrain) and Magan (probably the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, from the Sultanate of Oman to Yemen) and which is generally identified with the Civilization of the Indus Valley.

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Islamic civilization

The Islamic civilization or Muslim world designates according to each era. . This article discusses aspects of this civilization at different times, regardless of the Islamic religion.

The Muslim religion was born in Arabia in 610 when Muhammad presented his revelations. In a hundred years, it spreads to an important part of the Mediterranean basin by Arab conquests. After the fall of the Umayyads dynasty (750), the Muslim world is divided into several political entities (caliphate, emirates, sultanates) often rival. In, the irruption of the Seljuk Turks from Central Asia in the Near East and North Africa and causes the Crusades. The Ottoman Empire lasted from 1299 to 1922 with three significant dates: capture of Constantinople in 1453, siege of Vienna in 1529, battle of Lepanto in 1571. The Ottomans aspired to the title of caliph from 1517 and again in 1774; from then on, the Ottoman Sultan would be the official bearer of the caliphate until the abdication of the last of them, Abdülmecid II, in 1924.

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Huari

The Huari civilization (or Wari) refers to a people who flourished during the pre-Inca period of the middle horizon. It originated in the Christian era in the region of Ayacucho located in the Andes of southern Peru today. The capital of the same name is located near the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. This city was the center of a civilization that covered many highlands and the coast of modern Peru. First, their territory expanded to include the center of the old oracle of Pachacamac, although it seems to have regained its autonomy. Later, it expands to include many of the territories of the ancient Moche culture and the late Chimu culture. The best preserved remains of the huari culture remain near the town of Quinua. Also famous are the huari ruins of Pikillaqta (the “flea town”), a short distance south-east of Cuzco towards Lake Titicaca, which date back to before the advent of the Incas. The expansion of this ancient kingdom began first towards the coast towards the very important religious center of Pachacamac which seems to have kept a strong autonomy. Later, the Huari extend to the north on the lands of the ancient culture Moche and where will subsequently develop the Chimú civilization. At its peak, the huari civilization spans the entire coast and the highlands of central Peru. The Huari were contemporaries of the Tiahuanaco civilization that developed on the Bolivian high plateau on the shores of Lake Titicaca. These two civilizations have only recently been differentiated by archaeologists because of the many commonalities between the two cultures, particularly in the artistic field. It would seem that the two civilizations were in contact only during about fifty years during which they clashed sporadically. One possible source of conflict is the presence of mines at the limits of influence of the two cultures. The Huari appear to have been weakened by this rivalry, and declined to. The Huari were great builders: they set up administrative centers in several of their provinces; they developed a system of terracing to increase the productivity of agriculture in the mountainous regions; they also structured their kingdom through many routes that the Incas will later incorporate into their communication system. It is often considered that the Incas, who emerged three centuries after the disappearance of Huari, are the heirs of this civilization.

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History of the great powers

The history of the great powers presents a chronology of Nations or States that have dominated the world from the beginnings of antiquity to the present day because of their advanced political, economic, technological and / or military status. This status makes it possible to enjoy an influence and an international influence unmatched on the same space and time space. However, when a country accedes to it, it is not for all that legitimized by the whole of the international community and still less irreversibly established in its position. Indeed, because of the more or less visible will of each State to impose itself on the world stage (as evidenced by certain policies such as the creation of intelligence services or the complexity of diplomatic relations), it can be seen that many Civilizations have been able to gain leadership, but few have been able to keep it for more than a few centuries. Although the longevity of some is an optimal management vis-à-vis the era, there has always been a period of decline during which the balance of power has changed. In spite of this, because of the development of all aspects of society and the planetary enrichment almost constant over the ages, it is clear that the great powers of yesterday could not have the pre-eminence that benefited the United States since the end of the First World War or that will surely have the emerging countries during the. In other words, relative to other powers the world leader or leaders have had a more or less deep advantage depending on the time, but the comparison between powers of different eras seems superfluous because they can not be evaluated according to the same criteria, simply because of technical progress, for example.

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User: Ego Time Hotel Guy / Draft

Clément Montfort = Clément Montfort is a French journalist and documentary director born on December 15, 1986 in Annecy. He trained at La Télé Libre, an association created in 2007 by journalist John Paul Lepers. Clément Montfort holds a degree in Political Science from Université Lumière Lyon 2, as well as a Master’s degree in Sociology of Culture and Publicity from the University of Avignon.

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Decline of civilization

The decline of civilization is a common idea that the life of civilizations would follow a cycle of life: gestation, birth, growth, climax, and decline. Examples in support of this thesis are often:

It is possible to classify the causes of the decline of civilizations into two broad categories: endogenous causes, generated by civilization itself (political and social crises, structural crises, financial crises, wars, etc.), and exogenous causes, that is to say, external causes such as the appearance of epidemics, diseases or natural events (climate, volcanoes …).

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Danaans

According to mythology, the Dananese (also called Denyen) leave Atlantis to settle on the island of Rhodes: the name of the island comes from a Syrian word meaning “snake”. This people worship a goddess named Dana, whose graphic representation is a moon and a snake. But as Cyprus was called Danan by the ancient Egyptians, they could also have settled on this island. The Danean wizards are called Telchines. According to the Greek historian Diodorus, these magicians have the power to heal, change the weather and can also metamorphose as they see fit. Although at present their origin is still unknown, the Dananeans seem to come from the north of the Orontes (Hattay).

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The clash of civilizations

The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order is the title of an essay on political analysis written by American Harvard professor Samuel Huntington, published in 1996 and translated into French in 1997. Very controversial since its publication, the book has given rise to many debates. The theory developed by Huntington was originally published in an article in Foreign Affairs in the summer of 1993. As this article provoked many positive and negative reactions, Huntington wanted to deepen his theory and develop all its aspects by publishing a book entitled The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Rebuilding the World Order “). Huntington’s project is to develop a new conceptual model for describing the functioning of international relations after the collapse of the Soviet bloc in the late 1980s. However, it does not claim to give its model a validity that extends beyond the end of the beginning and the beginning of and relies on a geopolitical description of the world based no longer on “political” ideological cleavages, but on more blurred cultural oppositions than he calls “civilizational”, in which the religious substratum holds a central place, and on their often conflicting relations.

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Shock of civilizations (history)

The clash of civilizations is a concept and a tool for analyzing history. The historian Bernard Lewis invented it in 1957, in the aftermath of the Suez Canal crisis, at a symposium on tensions in the Middle East, organized at Johns Hopkins University in Washington. The political scientist Samuel Huntington takes up this concept in his article, published in the review in 1993. He finally popularized it with the publication of his book The Shock of Civilizations (in English,), published in 1996.

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Chalybes

The Chalybes (in (Khalibebi) in Greek Χάλυβες, Χάλυβοι) are a people of Antiquity, a Georgian tribe to whom the invention of steel is generally attributed. In Latin, the word Chalybs meant steel according to Virgil; steel object according to Seneca. Xenophon warns them in Book IV of his Anabasis, and craftsmen of iron, which they extract from mines; they are subject to their neighbors the Mossynecs, a people west of the Pont-Euxin. Their country abounded in iron mines: Xenophon and Apollonius of Rhodes speak about it – Apollonius says they sell it.

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Wheat civilization

Wheat civilization refers to all the territories and populations where wheat is (or rather was) the main crop and the main food. It includes a large part of Europe, the Mediterranean basin and the Middle East. It is opposed in this respect to the civilizations of maize (America) and rice (Asia). This concept, coined by the French historian Fernand Braudel, is mainly applied to the history of the world from Antiquity to. By the end of, the first globalization blurs the tracks and makes this description obsolete. Wheat is a plant of civilization that is often linked to the olive and the vine. These three cultures are found elsewhere (since before, China is already massively growing wheat) but they are significant of Western civilization, including the Middle East. The first civilizations of wheat, vines and olive trees are located in the Middle East in Mesoptamia and Egypt in particular.

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Bessi

The Besses are an ancient Thracian tribe of the Balkans.

In antiquity, its territory stretched from the high basin of the Evros Rhodopes. Herodotus also locates them “in the mountains of the northwestern Kingdom of Odrysia,” adding that they practiced divination and interpreted the prophecies of the priestess of the oracle of Dionysus at Satrae. Strabo calls them “brigands among robbers” and looters. But Theodor Mommsen locates their capital, Uscudama, further down the Evros, on the site of the future Adrianople while archaeologists identify it in Bessapara, now Sinitovo near Pazardzhik, Bulgaria.

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Barbarous

Originally, the term “barbaric”, borrowed in French in 1308 from the Latin barbarus, itself derived from the ancient Greek / (“foreign”), was used by the ancient Greeks to designate peoples not belonging to their country. civilization (defined by the Hellenic language and religion), and of which they could not understand the language. Barbarian meant then “non-Greek”: any person whose language resembled, for the Greeks, a mumbo-jumbo “bar-bar.” The term “barbarian” was then used by the Romans to name the peoples who are at the outside, in the “land of Barbarians”, that is to say out of their authority: the. For the Greeks as for the Romans, any “barbarian” can, by adopting their language, their gods and their manners, become Greek or Roman, and this was the case not only of many individuals (some of whom managed to reach the imperial function ), but also whole peoples, accepted in the Empire as. However, these terms could also reflect the fear or contempt inspired by the foreigner, the invader who does not present himself as an ally, in potential, but in conquering wanting to impose his manners and his power in the For Thucydides, “Barbarian” also has a technical meaning: that of local values ​​opposed to the universal values ​​sought by the civilized, for example those that put the interest of a clan above the detriment of the common interest, the “public good”.

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Arzawa

The Arzawa (ancient Arzawiya form) is a kingdom and region of Western Anatolia whose history is known only to external sources, mainly from the neighboring kingdom of the Hittites, who have repeatedly fought in this region. The exact location of Arzawa is still debated. It is located in southwestern Anatolia, between Lycia and Lydia posterior. It could have been extended to the Aegean Sea. The Arzawa is undoubtedly a realm of Luvite culture, as evidenced by the names of people from this country and the fact that it worshiped the gods of Latvia, such as Arma (the Moon) and Tarhunda (god of the Thunderstorm). The first historical attestation of the kingdom of Arzawa dates from the reign of Hattushili, around 1650 BC.

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Ahhiyawa

The Ahhiyawa (ancient form Ahhiya) is a kingdom that appears primarily in the archives of the Hittite kingdom in the second half of The debate about its location, due to the fact that we can see a mention of the Achaeans, is still far from being closed, especially since in ancient times homonyms were frequent, the same name could designate several peoples and countries (for example, there are several |).

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adena

The Adena civilizations are pre-Columbian cultures that develop at (-1000 / -100), early in the woodland period in the woodlands of the eastern United States, Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, Kentucky and parts of Pennsylvania and New York State. Rich mounds adjoin artificial mounds.

The modest Adena villages punctuate the river valleys where there are plenty of small mammals, birds, fish and a wide variety of consumable plants. Horticulture begins to produce sunflowers, elderberry, squash, cucurbitaceae and chenopodium. Agricultural surpluses may explain the development of this culture, which is considered to be Mound Builders. They live in rectangular houses, built of solid material, which reveals their sedentary lifestyle.

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Civilization

The term civilization has been used in different ways throughout history. In the current sense, civilization is the set of traits that characterize the state of a given society, from the technical, intellectual, political and moral point of view, without making any value judgment. We can then speak of civilizations in the plural and even of “primitive civilizations”, in the chronological sense, without pejorative connotation. Like those of culture, religion and society, the word civilization has become a key concept or “master word” for thinking about the world and history in the Enlightenment. The first to have used the word civilization in the present sense is Victor Riqueti de Mirabeau, the father of Mirabeau the revolutionary. In 1756, in ” The Friend of Men or Treaty of the Population, he writes: Similarly, in 1795, in Sketch of a Chart of Progress of the Human Mind ” of Condorcet, the idea of ​​civilization refers to the progress made by humanity in a given nation when it was possible to move from the state of barbarism to that of civilized. To civilization, then considered as an ideal to be attained and as a process of transformation of society towards this ideal, was the main legitimation given to imperialist colonization. It was a question of “civilizing” the peoples of the world in a hierarchical and evolutionist vision of civilization. Today the conceptions of civilization are more egalitarian so that the term refers more to a historical and social state of affairs than a process of transformation of societies. The idea has ceased to function in opposition to those of barbarism or savagery, while the principle of “the right of peoples to self-determination” is affirmed. In order to be able to define civilizations that have no precise structure nor institutional representation, it is necessary to select the facts that are considered appropriate. Thus, we rely on linguistic, ethical, geographical, cultural, religious or political facts. But the concepts of religion or culture are themselves discussed. For Bertrand Binoche,.

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Venus of Brizet

The Venus of Brizet (or Venus with turnips) is a marble statue discovered in a field of Saint-Just-sur-Loire (France, Department of the Loire) in 1937. Originally considered a work of art of Antiquity Roman, it was classified as object of the Historical Monuments in 1938 before one learns that it was actually a sculpture made in 1936 and buried the same year by an artist who had imagined this hoax to advertising purposes.

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Tiare of Saïtapharnès

The tiara of Saïtapharnès is a golden tiara. Acquired by the Louvre Museum in 1896, it later proved to be a forgery.

In April 1896, the Louvre reported that it had bought a tiara of gold discovered in Crimea and having belonged to the Scythian king Saïtapharnès. On the advice of Albert Kaempfen (1826-1907), then director of the National Museums, and archaeologists Antoine Héron de Villefosse and Solomon Reinach, the museum had acquired this invaluable piece for 200,000 gold francs. A Greek inscription on the tiara read: “The council and the citizens of Olbia honor the great and invincible King Saïtapharnès”. For the experts of the Louvre, this tiara confirmed an episode dating from the end of the early to the beginning of our era. At the request of its readers, the newspaper Le Figaro suggested to Solomon Reinach to tell in his columns the life of Saïtapharnès.

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Stones of Ica

The ” ‘Ica’ ” stones are a set of 15,000 pebbles of etesite engraved, appeared in Ica in Peru in the 1960s. The engravings represent fantastic animals, dinosaurs cohabiting with human beings, scenes evoking advanced technologies (surgical operations, heart transplants, telescopes, rockets, etc.). At first presented as authentic archaeological objects by their inventors, they finally prove to be a hoax.

Ica stones are made on andesite pebbles of various sizes. They are engraved superficially and carry various scenes and drawings, maps, missing animals such as dinosaurs or complex medical practices.

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Kensington Runestone

The Kensington Runestone is a rectangular grauwacke stone covered with runes on its face and side. Its origin and significance have been disputed since its “discovery” in 1898 at Solem Township (Douglas County) near Kensington, Minnesota. She suggests that Scandinavian explorers would have reached the middle of North America at. Scholars and historians consider James Knirk at www.forskning.no to be the most important: “‘Fin finnes en liten klikk med amerikanere som sverger til at steinen er ekte. From the position of the skandinaviskættede realister uten peiling på språk, og from har store skarer med tilhengere. There is a small click of Americans who swear to the stone’s authenticity. They are mainly natural scientists of Scandinavian with no knowledge of linguistics, and they have large numbers of adherents. ” The runestone has been analyzed and dismissed repeatedly without local effect. See: E. Wahlgren, The Kensington Stone: A Mystery Solved (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press) 1958; T. Blegen, The Kensington Runestone: New Light on an Old Riddle (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society) 1968; R. Fridley, “The Case of the Gran tapes,” Minnesota History 45.4 (1976: 152-56); B. Wallace, “Some points of controversy”, in B. Ashe, ed. The Quest for America (New York: Praeger) 1971: 154-74; E. Wahlgren, The Vikings and America (New York: Thames & Hudson) 1986. that it is a hoax, but the question is still debated.

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Ossuary of Silwan

The ossuary of Silwan is a burial urn, containing bones, found in Israel in 2002. It bears an inscription in Aramaic which translates as “James son of Joseph, brother of Jesus” and would date from. Some conclude that these are the bones of James the Just, the own brother of Jesus of Nazareth, first leader of the early Church, but whose existence was later hidden. Since then, they have committed themselves:

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Piltdown Man

The Piltdown man, Eoanthropus dawsoni (“Dawson’s Dawn Man”) then Homo dawsoni or Homo piltdownensis, was considered early as a fossil dating from the Acheulean (Lower Paleolithic) and as a link missing between the monkey and the man because of its simian characters (lower jaw) and human (skull cap). In 1959, tests definitely showed that it was a paleontological hoax. This hoax is.

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Glozel

Glozel is a locality of the town of Ferrieres-sur-Sichon, in the south-east of the department of Allier, located about thirty kilometers from Vichy, in the Bourbon mountains. It became famous from 1924, when was discovered a set of objects, attributed at first to a prehistoric time but whose antiquity and sometimes the authenticity were quickly disputed. The objects discovered are carved stones, pottery, bones, fragments of glass, and especially ceramic tablets bearing inscriptions evoking a writing in an alphabet often close to the Phoenician alphabet. These vestiges are at the origin of a strong controversy which divided a part of the scientific community, then the general public, into “Glozéliens” and “anti-Glozéliens”. The “Glozel affair” had many judicial episodes. After further analysis and dating, the Ministry of Culture released in 1995 a report that the site is primarily medieval, while containing many artifacts of the Iron Age. The report also concludes that the site has been overloaded, at an undetermined date, with some fakes whose author remains unknown.

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Cardiff Giant

The Cardiff giant is a hoax perpetrated in the United States. It was supposedly a petrified man, discovered and discovered on October 16, 1869 by workers digging a well behind the barn of William “Stub” Newell located in Cardiff, New York. The crowd came in numbers to contemplate the giant, each person having to pay and then, in view of the success of the operation, from the second day.

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