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Collapsologie is the study and elaboration of how industrial civilization as we know it collapses and if it does, what will replace it. Industrial civilization is the use of machinery powered by electricity or any form of energy to carry out various activities.

Most authors who have written about this topic claim that it might collapse eventually bringing many sectors to their knees. However, they also talk about industrial civilization being replaced in the cause of collapsologie. Continue Reading “Collapsologie”

Theories on the risk of collapse of industrial civilization

” Theories on the risk of collapse of industrial civilization ” are theories about the risks of imminent decline in the contemporary industrial world that include the extinction of many living species, including mankind, and ‘part of a process of global collapse. These conceptions describe a systemic risk of planetary catastrophes caused directly by its mode of operation. These theories of collapse are not based on direct scientific evidence, but rely on measurable indices and documented studies. The apocalyptic warnings (or the end of the world) are part of an old tradition, but the originality of the current theories is that they are based on scientific facts whose reality is recognized by scientific and institutional reports and expertise, such as those of the Club of Rome, the IPCC, international military authorities, the World Bank and the Davos Forum. In addition, the risks put forward are now based on human activity.

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Decline of civilization

The decline of civilization is a common idea that the life of civilizations would follow a cycle of life: gestation, birth, growth, climax, and decline. Examples in support of this thesis are often:

It is possible to classify the causes of the decline of civilizations into two broad categories: endogenous causes, generated by civilization itself (political and social crises, structural crises, financial crises, wars, etc.), and exogenous causes, that is to say, external causes such as the appearance of epidemics, diseases or natural events (climate, volcanoes …).

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The Arzawa (ancient Arzawiya form) is a kingdom and region of Western Anatolia whose history is known only to external sources, mainly from the neighboring kingdom of the Hittites, who have repeatedly fought in this region. The exact location of Arzawa is still debated. It is located in southwestern Anatolia, between Lycia and Lydia posterior. It could have been extended to the Aegean Sea. The Arzawa is undoubtedly a realm of Luvite culture, as evidenced by the names of people from this country and the fact that it worshiped the gods of Latvia, such as Arma (the Moon) and Tarhunda (god of the Thunderstorm). The first historical attestation of the kingdom of Arzawa dates from the reign of Hattushili, around 1650 BC.

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Kensington Runestone

The Kensington Runestone is a rectangular grauwacke stone covered with runes on its face and side. Its origin and significance have been disputed since its “discovery” in 1898 at Solem Township (Douglas County) near Kensington, Minnesota. She suggests that Scandinavian explorers would have reached the middle of North America at. Scholars and historians consider James Knirk at to be the most important: “‘Fin finnes en liten klikk med amerikanere som sverger til at steinen er ekte. From the position of the skandinaviskættede realister uten peiling på språk, og from har store skarer med tilhengere. There is a small click of Americans who swear to the stone’s authenticity. They are mainly natural scientists of Scandinavian with no knowledge of linguistics, and they have large numbers of adherents. ” The runestone has been analyzed and dismissed repeatedly without local effect. See: E. Wahlgren, The Kensington Stone: A Mystery Solved (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press) 1958; T. Blegen, The Kensington Runestone: New Light on an Old Riddle (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society) 1968; R. Fridley, “The Case of the Gran tapes,” Minnesota History 45.4 (1976: 152-56); B. Wallace, “Some points of controversy”, in B. Ashe, ed. The Quest for America (New York: Praeger) 1971: 154-74; E. Wahlgren, The Vikings and America (New York: Thames & Hudson) 1986. that it is a hoax, but the question is still debated.

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Wielbark Culture

The Wielbark culture takes its name from a village where the Germans discovered in 1873 a cemetery of more than 3000 tombs, attributed to the Gothic and Gépides peoples. Unfortunately, many of the stones in this cemetery have been moved and several burials damaged. The report of the first excavations, lost during the Second World War, was only found in 2004, and is about to be analyzed by a team of Polish researchers from Danzig, Warsaw, Krakow and Lublin.

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Culture of Chernyakhov

The culture of Chernyakhov is a pre-Slavic culture that developed from Belarus to Moldova through Ukraine. The eponymous site is the village of Chernyakhov in Kiev Oblast in Ukraine, excavated in the early years of the. Around the year 300, this civilization spread to Romania where it is found as the Sânta-Ana culture of Mureş. Its existence is attested by a thousand archaeological sites.

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Culture of Qijia

The culture of Qijia (2200-1600) is the first culture of the late Neolithic that makes, in China, the transition with the Bronze Age. It can therefore be considered a culture of the Bronze Age. It is located mainly in Gansu, east of Qinghai and south of Ningxia. Johan Gunnar Andersson discovered the first site in Qijiaping (齊 家坪) in 1923, as he searched west for the origins of Yangshao culture. Chronologically and culturally it follows and inherits the culture of Majiayao, a culture that includes copper and bronze objects, the oldest in China’s present territories.

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Culture of Afanasievo

The ” Afanasievo ” ‘(or Afanasevo, Afanasyevo) culture is a southern Siberian culture, dated from 3300/3200 to 2600/2400 BCE. From an archaeological point of view, it expresses a material culture of the age of copper.

The Afanasievo culture is best known from excavations carried out in the Minusinsk region of southern Krasnoyarsk Krai in southern Siberia, but is also found in western Mongolia, northern Xinjiang. East and central Kazakhstan, with connections or extensions to Tajikistan and the Aral Sea region, or even further east to Xinjiang and beyond, to western China, through Qijia culture

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Sydney Fox, der Abenteurer

‚Relic Hunter‘ (Relic Hunter) ist eine TV-Serie deutsch-französisch-britisch-kanadische in 66 Episoden von 43 Minuten erstellt von Jay Firestone und Gil Grant und Sendung in Kanada auf Citytv dann Raum und die Vereinigten Staaten United zwischen dem 25. September 1999 im Fernsehen und dem 20. Mai 2002 im syndizierten Fernsehen. Die ersten beiden Saisons wurden in Koproduktion mit Frankreich produziert, während die dritte Staffel mit Großbritannien koproduziert wurde. In Frankreich ausgestrahlt wurde die Serie zwischen 13.em Februar 2000 | im Fernsehen und 21. Dezember 2003 | im Fernsehen auf M6 dann rebroadcast auf Teva, W9, TF6 und vom 15. September 2014 | im Fernsehen 6b sowie auf der Paris Première vom 4. Juli 2016 bis 23. September 2016 in remasterter HD-Version. In Quebec wurde es auf Séries übertragen.

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Ellipse (Geographie)

In den Jahren nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg hatten Geographen die Möglichkeit, die ferngesteuerte Fernerkundung zu nutzen, die nun für zivile Zwecke genutzt wird. Diese neue Technik ermöglichte die Entdeckung ererbter Raumformen, die vom Boden und vom Maßstab des Individuums aus unsichtbar waren. So definiert André Meynier in den bretonischen Hainen Birkenellipsen. Weniger bekannte Autoren folgten ihm in diese Richtung, insbesondere Marcel Gautier in der Vendée. Diese Ellipsen wurden als Spuren von alten Lichtungen auf dem Palimpsest der ländlichen Parzellen interpretiert. Diese Arbeit führte zu einer Dissertation über die von Jacqueline Soyer verfassten Rundschreiben. Nach 1979 (Veröffentlichung von Jean-Pierre Marchand auf Ellipsen in Mayenne) wurde das Thema von Geographen aufgegeben, aber von Archäologen aufgegriffen, darunter das Team von Gerard Chouquer an der Universität von Burgund. Diese Art von Forschung schien ihre Relevanz bei den erkenntnistheoretischen Entwicklungen der französischen Geographie zu verlieren, aber dies wird diskutiert, seit 2011 eine These verteidigt wurde, um dieses Thema zu rehabilitieren.

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Archaeology Soup

Archeological Operating System, or ArcheOS

Archeological Operating System, or ArcheOS in short, is a GNU/Linux live distribution meant to address archaeological computing concerns. Currently, a new version (5.0), codenamed “Theodoric” is being developed. It is based on Debian “Wheezy.”

A Brief History

ArcheOS is one of the many specialist kinds of operating systems Linux users can download and use. This particular system is tailored to serve archaeological purposes. The OS is of Italian origin, and it was first released in 2005.

The second version would come three years later in 2008, and the third version would follow soon after in 2009. The fourth version of the was released in 2011, and it was based on Debian Squeeze.

Although the recent versions of the program are based on Debian GNU/Linux, version 1 was based on PCLinuxOS while versions 2 and 3 were based on Kubuntu.

Applications that Come with the ArcheOS


Some of the CAD applications on this OS include LibreCAD, and Spatialite and SQLite data base applications. SQLite is a world-famous SQL database engine; while Spatialite helps with the management of spatial data.

3D Graphics Applications

Additionally, Blender, MakeHuman, InVesalius, Meshlab, and Whitedune are bundled with the OS for the sake of 3D graphics processing. Blender is a pretty popular 3D content creation suite, and it is freely available. MakeHuman is another key 3D application intended for creating professional-grade 3 dimensional humanoid characters.


While Tellervo is the OS’s dendrychronology application, Python Photogrammetry Toolbox is the photogrammetry program. This latter application is useful for recording three-dimensional data.


GIS (Geographical Information System) applications included are GRASS, openJUMP, QGIS, and Josm. These should come in handy when capturing, handling and analyzing information with geographical references.

For instance, openJUMP is a Java-based program well suited to this role. On the other hand, GRASS, in addition to being a GIS application, can be used to analyze images, manage data, and help produce maps and graphics among other things.


Graphics programs include Gimp, Darktable, InkScape, Ristretto, and Shutter. These applications should assist with regular photo editing, but at a professional level for better results. For instance, InkScape is useful in the creation of SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) format files.

Other programs you will get with the OS include LibreOffice, LyX Processor, Marble, RStudio, Texmaker, Ipe, Jabref, and Scribus.

How to Install ArcheOS

ArcheOS is available free of charge, which is typical of all Linux distros. You can install the operating system using a DVD or directly from your hard disk. If you prefer the DVD installation, you have to download the ArcheOS .iso image file.

From there, you should burn it onto a DVD using a common software like Brasero or Nero. Burning at low speeds is recommended for better quality results. Once the operating system is in a DVD in a bootable format, you can go ahead and restart your computer with the DVD still in the tray.

Make sure the computer is set to prioritize DVD booting so that it does not load the OS already on the hard disk and skip right over the ArcheOS DVD. Other than the install option, the DVD will also give you a “live” option. This lets you run the program without having to install it on the hard drive so that you can get a feel of what it is really like.

The OS can also be installed directly from the computer using the install option provided. After that you should follow the easy to follow installation instructions until the OS is fully installed on your computer.

Getting ArcheOS through a Debian Wheezy Update

You do not have to make a clean installation of the ArcheOS on your computer if you already have Debian Wheezy installed. As mentioned earlier, ArcheOS is based on Debian Wheezy. So, you can update this base system into ArcheOS through a few update procedures. This can be done through your terminal.

You Can Also Build ArcheOS Yourself

This is for the pros who have some software development skills. The ArcheOS you build can even be distributed to other users. Without having to go into a lot of details, you should know that building ArcheOS requires you to ensure that your system and its OS setup meets the minimum standards.

After that, you have to configure your system in readiness for the OS building process. From there, you should follow the steps provided on the relevant sites. They include building the ISO file, adding the required packages, and changing the build architecture if you so desire.

Furthermore, if you want a custom made ArcheOS but are not in a position to create your own ArcheOS, you can always see what Team OS has to offer.


ArcheOS has plenty to offer archaeologists. The program has enough features to provide a unique computing experience for anyone collecting, editing, processing, and documenting archaeological finds.

The operating system has many world-class applications that will prove critical to this profession. Installation is also easy, and a live boot option is available, as a well as a dual boot capability for those who need it.

ArcheOS Download Links


ArcheOS is synonymous with archaeological exploitation system. It is a live GNU / Linux DVD distribution, with specialized software for archaeological purposes.